breeds during the antarctic winter. Two other birds also
breed solely in Antarctica, the South Polar Skua (ARKive)
and the Antarctic Petrel (ARKive).
The antarctic dragonfish genera Cygnodraco (AcanthoWeb) and Prionodraco (eol), the recently described eelpout genus Gosztonyia (Wildlife Extra), and the barbled plunderfish genera Histiodraco (BOLD) and Dolloidraco (FishBase) are unique to antarctic waters. Among other fish endemic to these frigid waters are the Naked Dragonfish Gymnodraco acuticeps (p. 5 of Underwater Field Guide to Ross Is. pdf file), the Sharp-spined Notothen Trematomus pennellii (eol), Cryothenia amphitreta (Univ. Illinois), Charcot's Pseudo-icefish Parachaenichthys charcoti (Antarctic Underwater Field Guide), the Hopbeard Plunderfish Pogonophryne neyelovi (Species ID), Chionodraco hamatus (AFG), and a crocodile icefish Pagetopsis macropterus (FishBase).
Land invertebrates include a flightless midge Beligica antarctica (BBC), the tardigrades Hebesuncus ryani (Univ. Hamburg pdf file) and Echiniscus corrugicaudatus (p. 20 of Anglia Ruskin Univ. pdf file), the bdelloid rotifers Philodina alata (eol) and Philodina antarctica (eol), a nematode Chiloplacoides antarcticus (IRD pdf file), and a number of endemic springtails (Bishop Museum pdf file) with Biscoia sudpolaris and Antarctophorus sudpolaris known as far south as 84° 47' S (both at NZ TABS) . The Maudheimiidae (Bishop Museum pdf file) is an endemic family of mites.
Families of marine invertebrates known only from Antarctica include sea cucumbers Paracucumidae (Antarctic Invertebrates), a comb jelly Cryptocodidae (Google Books), and molluscs Sandalomeniidae (fig. 5 at BHL). Other endemic marine invertebrates include the gastropods Pleurotomella endeavourensis (Te Papa) and Bathybembix delicatula (Antarctic Invertebrates), a nudibranch Notaeolidia schmekelae (p. 16 of Underwater Field Guide to Ross Is. pdf file), a pycnogonid Eurycyde antarctica (Antarctic Invertebrates), the sponges Leucetta delicata (p. 7 of Zootaxa pdf file) and Acanthopolymastia acanthoxa (p. 5 of Zootaxa pdf file), a sea anemone Edwardsiella andrillae (IISE), a gorgonia Tauroprimnoa austasensis (EurekAlert!), a krill Euphausia crystallorophias (WoRMS), an isopod crustacean Eurycope crassiramis (Zootaxa pdf file), and the amphipod crustaceans Eusirus giganteus (flickr) and Epimeria rimicarinata (eol). Recently over 700 new species of marine invertebrates have been discovered off Antarctica (BBC).
A moss species Grimmia lawiana (Grimmias of the World) is known only from Antarctica, but there are no endemic vascular plant species. Antarctica has a number of unique freshwater diatoms (Antarctic Freshwater Diatoms) and a number of endemic lichens such as Buellia frigida (antmoss.nipr.ac.jp), Lecidella greenii (eol), and Calvitimela uniseptata (eol).