found only in the Bahamas including the Bahama Yellowthroat (Wikipedia),
Bahama Swallow (Neotropical
Birds), the Bahama Lizard-Cuckoo (PBase), and an extinct hummingbird, Brace’s Emerald (Smithsonian pdf file). The
Institute) has recently been proposed as a species distinct
from the Brown-headed Nuthatch, the Bahama Warbler (Caribbean Birding Trail) was recently split from the Yellow-throated Warbler, and the Bahama Oriole (ABC)
and Inagua Woodstar (BNT) have recently been recognized as a distinct species as well. The Bahama
of the Environment)
is a high profile endemic subspecies of conservation concern.
The nation's unique mammals are the Bahamian Lesser Funnel-eared Bat (p.4 of Gerace Research Centre pdf file) and a large rodent, the Bahamian Hutia (ASM).
An amphibian restricted to the islands is the
Bahamas Flathead Frog Eleutherodactylus
Snakes known solely from the Bahamas include the Abaco Island Boa Chilabothrus exsul (Wikipedia), the Bahama Boa Chilabothrus strigilatus (GICS), the Bahamian Silver Boa Chilabothrus argentum (Guardian), the Bahamian Threadsnake Epictia columbi (Caribherp), the Bahaman Dwarf Boa Tropidophis canus (Caribherp), and the Bahaman Brown Racer Cubophis vudii (flickr). Among the endemic lizards are spectacular species such as the North Bahamian Rock Iguana (ARKive) and the San Salvador Iguana (ARKive). Additional lizards unique to the nation include the Crooked-Acklins Curlytail Lizard Leiocephalus punctatus (Caribherp), the Inagua Gecko Aristelliger barbouri (Caribherp), a dwarf gecko Sphaerodactylus corticola (Caribherp), and the Bahamian Green Anole Anolis smaragdinus (Caribherp).
Endemic freshwater fish include the Bahama Pupfish Cyprinodon laciniatus (Michael Barton), the Scale-eating Pupfish Cyprinodon desquamator and the Durophage Pupfish Cyprinodon brontotheroides (both at UC Davis pdf file), and the Bahamas Mosquitofish Gambusia hubbsi (Layman Lab). The New Providence Cusk-eel Lucifuga spelaeotes (ARKive) is a threatened marine fish living only in caves with a second species, Lucifuga lucayana (Zootaxa pdf file), having been recently described. Other endemic marine fish include the Blacknose Goby (STRI), the Cay Sal Searobin (STRI), and the Dwarf Clingfish (STRI). Catesby's False Moray (STRI) is an endemic genus.
Endemic arthropods include a tarantula Cyrtopholis bonhotei (Birdspiders.com), Richmond's Skipper Choranthus richmondi (Butterflies of America), Carter's Skipper Atalopedes carteri (Butterflies of America), a jewel beetle Lampetis bahamica (Caribbean Insects), a rhinoceros beetle Cyclocephala dolichotarsa (p. 7 of Digital Commons pdf file), a flightless darkling beetle Branchus geraceorum (p.4 of Gerace Research Centre pdf file), a jumping shore beetle Mexico morrisoni (Digital Commons pdf file), the false metallic wood-boring beetles Trixagus steineri (Digital Commons pdf file) and Aulonothroscus inawa (Digital Commons pdf file), a grasshopper Schistocerca magnifica (OSF), and the ants Solenopsis lucayensis (AntWiki) and Crematogaster lucayana (AntWiki).
The Bahamas has 68 species of cave-dwelling invertebrates (cavebiology.com)
found nowhere else including a basket shrimp Typhlatya
a remipede Speleonectes
and a hirsutiid crustacean Thetispelecaris
remex (crustacea.net). The endemic land snails of the
became famous as the study subject of the noted biologist Stephen Jay
Gould.and the over 300 species found in the Bahamas include Cerion excelsior (Cerion)
and Cerion rodrigoi
(Cerion). Marine molluscs known only from the Bahamas include Conus lucaya (jaxshells.org), Conus richardbinghami (jaxshells.org), Modulus honkerorum (Google Books), and
Hardy). Endemic families include remipede crustaceans Pleomothridae (cavebiology.com
pdf file) and a cave-dwelling shrimp Macromaxillocarididae (cavebiology.com
The Bahamas have about 50 endemic species of plants (see NCSU pdf file) including several orchids: Encyclia androsiana (IOPSE), Encyclia fehlingii (Leon Levy), Encyclia withneri (IOPSE), and Tolumnia sasseri (IOPSE). Other endemic plants include the agaves Agave cacozela (Google Books) and Agave bahamana (IRC), the orchids , a cactus Harrisia brookii (Leon Levy), a cycad Zamia lucayana (ARKive), Bursera frenningae (Leon Levy), a guava Psidium androsianum (USF), Passiflora bahamensis (Leon Levy), a spurge Euphorbia inaguaensis (Malpighiales), Thouinia discolor (Leon Levy), Waltheria bahamensis (Leon Levy), Spathelia bahamensis (Leon Levy), Lantana demutata (Leon Levy), and Clematis plukenetii (Leon Levy).
Most of the country is part of the Bahamian Dry Forests ecoregion (EoE) and is included in the Caribbean Islands biodiversity hotspot (CEPF).