The world's smallest
snake, the Barbados Threadsnake Tetracheilostoma
is only 10 cm long and was described in 2008 from Barbados. The Barbados Anole Anolis extremus (eol)
occurs naturally only on Barbados, but has been introduced in St. Lucia
and Bermuda. Other reptiles unique to the island include
the Barbados Racer Erythrolamprus
which was last seen alive in 1961, the Barbados Skink Alinea lanceolata (eol)
and the Barbados
Leaf-toed Gecko Phyllodactylus
pulcher (Reptile Database).
The Barbados Bullfinch Loxigilla barbadensis (Neotropical Birds) was recently recognized as a species distinct from the more widespread Lesser Antillean Bullfinch Loxigilla noctis.
A giant rice rat Megalomys
is recently extinct.
Endemic invertebrates include the long-horned beetles Plectromerus louisantoini (SEAG) and Lagocheirus unicolor (eol), a jewel beetle Chrysobothris antillarum (AMNH), the Brown Hard-back Beetle Phyllophaga (or Phytalus) smithi (Internet Archive), a tarantula Cyrtopholis annectans (BHL), a velvet worm Epiperipatus barbadensis (eol), an endemic genus of pinnotherid crab Epulotheres angelae (AToL Decapoda pdf file), a eusocial snapping shrimp Synalpheus microneptunus (AToL Decapoda pdf file), a freshwater shrimp Atya brachyrhinus (IUCN), and the land snails Pleurodonte isabella (CalPhotos) and Brachypodella costata (figs. 35-37 at Google Books). Endemic marine snails include Conus kremerorum (IUCN), Conus sanderi (IUCN), Oliva barbadensis (eol), Aphera lindae (eol), and Monostiolum rosewateri (AMNH),
There are perhaps two endemic plant species. Metastelma barbadense (Plants of the Eastern Caribbean) is a vine. Phyllanthus andersonii (Plants of the Eastern Caribbean) is a shrub that is often considered a synonym of the widespread Glochidion ellipticum (Kew). Agave barbadensis (Google Books) is also sometimes considered a full species distinct from Agave karatto (Plants of the Eastern Caribbean).
Barbados is in the Windward Islands Xeric Scrub ecoregion (EoE) and is included in the Caribbean Islands biodiversity hotspot (CEPF). The CBD Strategy and Action Plan for Barbados can be found at (CBD pdf file).