is home to
several primate species found nowhere else including the Bolivian Gray
[note that the subspecies pallescens
considered a separate species], the Rio Beni Titi (ARKive),
Brothers' Titi (ARKive),
Madidi Titi or
Golden Palace Monkey (Planet'
has recently been identified as distinct from the more widespread
Amazon River Dolphin . Other
endemic mammals include Dorothy’s Slender Opossum Marmosops dorothea
(p. 2 of Field
Museum pdf file), a short-tailed opossum Monodelphis sanctaerosae
Thoughts), the Bolivian Chinchilla Rat (EDGE),
the Huanchaca Mouse (Planet'
Mammiferes), the Rio Itenez Rice Rat (Planet'
Mammiferes), the Muenster Yellow-toothed Cavy (Wikipedia),
Lewis' Tuco-tuco (EurekAlert!), Yates' Big-eared Bat (HMNS), and the Bolivian Golden Bat (BBC).
The Bolivian Blackbird (flickr) represents a genus unique to Bolivia. The Cliff Parakeet (IBC), Blue-throated Macaw (ARKive) and the Red-fronted Macaw (Parrots Int'l) are endangered parrots. Other birds found solely in Bolivia include the Horned Curassow (IBC), the Ashy Antwren (BirdLife Int'l), the Black-hooded Sunbeam (Neotropical Birds), the Palkachupa Cotinga (ABC), the Rufous-faced Antpitta (IBC), the Masked Antpitta (Neotropical Birds), Zimmer's Tapaculo (flickr), the Bolivian Earthcreeper (flickr), the Bolivian Spinetail (Neotropical Birds), the Cochabamba Mountain-finch (ARKive), the Bolivian Brush-finch (IBC), the Unicolored Thrush (IBC), and the Bolivian Recurvebill (BirdLife Int'l).
Amphibians found exclusively in Bolivia include the La Siberia Marsupial Frog (ARKive), the Sehuencas Water Frog (ARKive), the Cochamba Robber Frog (ARKive), the Parjacti Treefrog (EDGE), the Bolivian Poison Frog (AmphibiaWeb), the El Chape Toad (ARKive), Guille's Andes Frog (CBC-AMNH), and a glass frog Cochranella nola (ARKive). Recently described species include a marsupial frog Gastrotheca piperata (AmphibiaWeb), the Tacana Toad (Zootaxa pdf file), and the Inquisivi Water Frog (ARKive).
Reptiles known only from Bolivia include the Bolivian Anaconda Eunectes beniensis (Reptile Database), the Bolivian Lancehead Bothrops sanctaecrucis and Diana's Coral Snake Micrurus diana (both at Animais Bolivia), a ground snake Xenopholis werdingorum (Magical Creatures), the burrowing snakes Phalotris sansebastiani (Senckenberg) and Apostolepis breviceps (BioOne), Ruthven's Burrowing Snake Apostolepis tenuis (UMMZ), and a worm lizard Amphisbaena cegei (Check List pdf file).
Among the catfish endemic to Bolivia are Corydoras geryi (PlanetCatfish), Corydoras latus (PlanetCatfish), Corydoras mamore (PlanetCatfish), Farlowella altocorpus (Species New to Science), Hypostomus levis (PlanetCatfish), and Rineloricaria beni (PlanetCatfish). Other fish known only from the rivers and streams of Bolivia include the dwarf cichlids Apistogramma linkei (FishBase) and Apistogramma rubrolineata (Cichlid Room Companion), the Goldstripe Characin Creagrutus beni (FishBase), a rosy tetra Hyphessobrycon pando (Amin Zero), an annual fish Papiliolebias ashleyae (aqua), and a tetra Hemigrammus neptunus (FishBase).
The mysterious Broad-headed Fly Eurychoromyia mallea (Diptera Site) was once placed in its own family, the Eurychoromyidae, but is now part of a subfamily of the Lauxaniidae (Zootaxa pdf file). Endemic butterflies include Pierphulia nysias (Butterflies of America), a swallowtail Parides steinbachi (Papilionidae of the World), Eretris julieta (SciELO Brazil), and South America's highest flying butterfly Piercolias huanaco (Butterflies of America). Othe endemic invertebrates include an ant Dolichoderus smithi (AntWiki), a large rhinoceros beetle Dynastes satanus (NHM-London), a tiger beetle Pometon bolivianus (ASU), the stag beetles Auxicerus multicolor (New World Scarab Beetles) and Scortizus zischkai (New World Scarab Beetles), a feather-wing beetle Xenopteryx setosus (BHL), a longhorned beetle Chapareia pinima (MNRJ), the tarantulas Cyriocosmus perezmilesi (theraphosidae.cz) and Oligoxystre bolivianum (Birdspiders.com), and a land snail Epiphragmophora malkini (BHL).
Many species of orchids are known only from Bolivia including Stenia vasquezii (IOPSE), Encyclia steinbachii (IOPSE), Restrepia vasquezii (flickr), and Sigmatostalix lutzii (IOPSE). Additional endemic species of plants include the Bolivian Mountain Coconut Parajubaea torallyi (PACSOA), the Red Powderpuff Calliandra haematocephala (flickr), Nasa herzogii (NYBG), an iris Mastigostyla torotoroensis (Kew), Peltaea chiquitana (Cerrados de Bolivia), Zamia boliviana (Cycad Pages), a bromeliad Tillandsia samaipatensis (flickr), and Polylepis neglecta (ARKive). Plant genera unique to Bolivia include the orchids Vasqueziella (WVOV) and Seegeriella (IOPSE), Izozogia (Field Museum), the cacti Samaipaticereus (flickr) and Yungasocereus (CactiGuide.com), Cardenasiodendron (Kew), Protoschwenkia (JSTOR), and two blueberries: Polyclita (NYBG) and Rusbya (JSTOR). A list of endemic Bolivian plants can be generated at (eFloras).
Portions of Bolivia are part of the Tropical Andes (CEPF) and Cerrado (CEPF) biodiversity hotspots. Lake Titicaca (FEOW) has many unique freshwater species.