Part of the Sundaland biodiversity hotspot (CEPF) and sharing the species rich island of Borneo (WWF) with portions of Indonesia and Malaysia, Brunei can claim several dozen species known only from within its borders.
Fish species recently discovered in Brunei include a silurid catfish Ompok platyrhynchus (Zootaxa pdf file), a halfbeak Dermogenys bruneiensis (FishBase), a barb Systomus xouthos (ResearchGate), a priapiumfish Neostethus geminus (Raffles Museum pdf file), and three species of river loach: Gastromyzon cranbrooki (Springer pdf file), Gastromyzon venustus (FishBase), and Neogastromyzon brunei (FishBase). A recently described marine fish, the Brunei Dartfish Navigobius vittatus (OSF pdf file), is currently known only from Brunei.
recently described amphibian found only in Brunei is the
Belalong Tree Frog Rhacophorus
New to Science).
Insects known only from Brunei include a dragonfly Eupahaea ameeka (All Odonata), a damselfly Telosticta belalongensis (p. 33 of Raffles Museum pdf file), a jewel beetle Anthaxia billbarri (Gi. it. Ent.), a scarab beetle Bruneixenus squamosus (p. 6 of eResearch Archive pdf file), a rove beetle Drusilla bruneiorum (Internet Archive), a lasiocampid moth Trabala bouraq (Moths of Borneo), an ant Strumigenys zagan (AntWiki), an endemic genus of wasp Agmostigma (NHM-London pdf file), a fruit fly Euphranta belalongensis (p. 3 of Raffles Museum pdf file), a stonefly Phanoperla belalong (p. 8 of Illiesia pdf file), a water bug Aphelocheirus bruneiensis (p. 14 of nhm-wien.ac.at pdf file), and a water strider Rheumatogonus esakii (p. 10 of Naturalis pdf file).
invertebrates unique to Brunei include a
jumping spider Brettus
storki (p. 3 of Peckham
Soc. pdf file), the goblin spiders Ischnothyreus barus
and Ischnothyreus elvis
an endemic genus of cobweb spider Brunepisinus
pdf file), a
freshwater crab Terrathelphusa
telur (p. 10 of Raffles
Museum pdf file), and a freshwater prawn Macrobrachium leucodactylus
(p. 7 of Raffles
Museum pdf file). A family of oribatid mites, the Luxtoniidae
was described from specimens collected in the Badas Forest Reserve in
About 35 species of vascular plants are so far known exclusively from Brunei including the palms Livistona exigua (PACSOA), Calamus maiadum (PALMweb), and Pinanga yassinii (PALMweb). Other endemic plants include the orchids Coelogyne bruneiensis (IOPSE) and Trichoglottis persicina (SOF), Homalomena terajaensis (flickr), Thismia inconspicua (Species New to Science), Pothos laurifolius (p. 86 of Botanic Gardens Trust - Sydney 3 MB pdf file), Horsfieldia disticha (JSTOR), Bauhinia campanulata (JSTOR), Hoya wongii (ingentaconnect), Amischotolype sphagnorhiza (Jaqueline Henrot), Begonia jamilahana (Species New to Science), Lasianthus bruneensis (JSTOR), Henckelia coodei (JSTOR), Albertisia triplinervis (JSTOR), Connarus peltatus (JSTOR), Schismatoglottis hottae (flickr), Etlingera belalongensis (JSTOR), and Knema minima (fig. c at BHL), and an endemic genus of bamboo Temburongia simplex (BioLib).