Myanmar has an
especially notable endemic freshwater fish fauna. Inle Lake (WWF) is home to 16 species found nowhere else
Microrasbora (or Danio)
and Devarios), a spiny eel Mastacembelus oatesii (Naturhistoriska
riksmuseet), the Inle Loach Yunnanilius brevis (Loaches
Online), and two endemic genera: the Sawbwa Barb Sawbwa (ARKive)
and Inlecypris (Hippocampus) . Other genera unique to Myanmar include one of the world's smallest fish Danionella
and Devarios), the Eyespot Gourami Parasphaerichthys
(jjphoto), a loach Pteronemacheilus (Species New to Science),
and the catfishes Ayarnangra
and Caelatoglanis (PlanetCatfish).
Other endemics include the Myanmar Arowana Scleropages inscriptus (PFK), an eel-loach Pangio
Chaudhuria ritvae (NHM-London), Badis corycaeus (FishBase),
the Indawgyi Stream
Catfish Akysis prashadi
Chaca burmensis (scotcat.com), a barb Puntius didi (Species New to Science), Devario browni (Danios and
Devarios), the Celestial Pearl
Danio Danio margaritatus (Wikipedia), Garra flavatra (ARKive), and the recently described Dracula Fish Danionella dracula (NHM-London).
Reptiles found only in Myanmar include the Burmese Peacock Softshell Turtle Nilssonia formosa (WCT), the Burmese Star Tortoise Geochelone platynota (ARKive), the Burmese Roofed Turtle Kachuga trivittata (ATCN), the Arakan Forest Turtle Heosemys depressa (ARKive), a bloodsucker Calotes chincollium (Species New to Science), a gecko Cyrtodactylus brevidactylus (Species New to Science), a fan-throated lizard Ptyctolaemus collicristatus (Species New to Science), a skink Scincella victoriana (CAS pdf file), the Burmese Krait Bungarus magnimaculatus (p. 17 of CAS pdf file), the Burmese Spitting Cobra Naja mandalayensis (Wolfgang Wüster), and a recently described python Python kyaiktiyo (Species New to Science).
Amphibians restricted to Myanmar include the Tanintharyi Stream Toad (Species New to Science), a toad Duttaphrynus crocus (Species New to Science), the Toungoo Frog Hylarana oatesii (Internet Archive), the Indoburman Torrent Frog Amolops indoburmanensis (USF), the tree frogs Rhacophorus htunwini (CAS pdf file) and Chiromantis punctatus (CAS pdf file), a caecilian Ichthyophis multicolor (Species New to Science), and a number of recently discovered frogs (CAS).
Birds known solely from Myanmar include the White-browed Nuthatch (BirdLife Int'l), the Hooded Treepie (IBC), the White-throated Babbler (OBC), and the Burmese Bushlark (IBC). Jerdon's Minivet Pericrocotus albifrons (flickr) is sometimes considered distinct from the White-bellied Minivet Pericrocotus erythropygius. The Burmese Tit Aegithalos sharpei (IBC) has recently been split from the Black-browed Tit Aegithalos bonvaloti (IBC). The Naung Mung Scimitar-babbler (Planet of Birds) is sometime considered distinct from the Short-tailed Scimitar-babbler Jabouilleia danjoui.
Endemic mammals include the Popa Soft-furred Rat Millardia kathleenae (fig. 7 at Google Books), Anthony’s Pipistrelle (SABD), Joffre's Pipistrelle and the Myanmar Pipistrelle (both at Google Books), the recently described House-dwelling Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros einnaythu (Harrison Institute), and a recently described white-toothed shrew Crocidura cranbrooki (p. 20 of AMNH 6 MB pdf file). The Burmese Brow-antlered Deer or Thamin (ARKive) is sometimes considered a full species.
Invertebrates unique to Myanmar include a stick insect Dajaca nigrolineata (Phasmatodea.com), a stag beetle Lucanus nangsarae (goliathus), the longhorned beetles Glenea pseudoindiana (p. 9 of ASEF pdf file) and Anoplophora birmanica (Cerambycoidea.com), the ground beetles Carabus burmanensis (Carabidae of the World) and Salcedia parallela (BHL), a leaf beetle Antinia szypulai (Dr. Lech Borowiec pdf file), a click beetle Xanthopenthes burmensis (Elateridae), a butterfly Allaemona prasopsuki (Butterfly Soc. Japan), a tiger moth Eospilarctia naumanni (Wikipedia), a crab spider Sanmenia nigra (p. 9 of Raffles Museum pdf file), the tarantulas Chilobrachys bicolor (Ondrej Rehak) and Ornithoctonus andersoni (p. 8 of Boris Striffler 5 MB pdf file), a freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium patheinense (Internet Archive), and the land snails Cyclophorus cryptomphalus (Femorale) and Amphidromus janus (figs. 14 - 18 at Google Books).
Plants that are exclusive to Myanmar include many orchids such as Sarcoglyphis pensilis (IOPSE), Thunia brymeriana (IOPSE), Phalaenopsis natmataungensis (phals.net), Spathoglottis lobbii (IOPSE), and Coelogyne parishii (IOPSE). Endemic genera of plants include the Pride of Burma (ARKive), Stadiochilus (Smithsonian), Phylloboea (Genera of Gesneriaceae), Spathichlamys (JSTOR), and Woodburnia (Google Books). Other plants unique to Myanmar include the Farrer Pine Pinus farreri (ARKive), Rhododendron recurvoides (ARS), Rhododendron burmanicum (Wikispecies), Cryptocoryne cruddasiana (Crypts Pages), an aroid Amorphophallus angustispathus (IAS), the Persian Shield Strobilanthes dyerianus (mobot), a grass Dimeria keenanii (Tropicos), the gingers Hedychium bordelonianum (GingersRus) and Larsenianthus wardianus (eol), and Argostemma victorianum (ingentaconnect).
Portions of Myanmar are included in two biodiversity hotspots: Indo-Burma (CEPF) and Himalaya (CEPF). The Irrawaddy Dry Forests (EoE) is an ecoregion restricted to Myanmar. In addition to Lake Inle, the Sitang-Irawaddy (FEOW) and Lower & Middle Salween (FEOW) are important freshwater ecoregions.