has a rich and distinctive flora with 2698 species of vascular plants
found nowhere else by one count. Plant families unique
to Chile include Lactoridaceae (Chilebosque) and Thyrsopteridaceae (flickr)
Fernandez Islands and Gomortegaceae (Flora
Chilena) on the mainland. The plants
of the Juan Fernandez Islands (Field
Museum pdf file) include several more endemic genera such as
Cabbage Tree Dendroseris
the Chonta Palm Juania
Biodiversa) . The Toromiro Tree Sophora
is now extinct on Easter Island and survives only in
cultivation. Endemic mainland genera include the Chilean Wine Palm (ARKive),
the Lion's Claw (ARKive),
a bromeliad Ochagavia
and the Medallita (ChileFlora.com).
Other striking plants confined to Chile include the
Chilena), the Chilean Blue
Flame Nasturtium (ChileFlora.com),
the Ruil (Chilebosque).
Mammals found exclusively in Chile include Darwin’s Fox (ARKive), the Chilean Pampas Cat (p. 30 of AMNH pdf file) and (Wildcats Chile), the Juan Fernandez Fur Seal (ARKive), the Elegant Fat-tailed Mouse Opossum (ARKive), Darwin's Leaf-eared Mouse (flickr), the Large Long-clawed Mouse (ARKive), the Dune Gerbil Mouse (CHC), Bennett's Chinchilla Rat (ARKive), and the Short-tailed Chinchilla (EDGE). The Chilean Dolphin (ARKive) is known with certainty only from Chilean waters. Endemic genera of rodents include the Degu (Wikipedia), the Coruro (Zootierliste), and the Chilean Long-clawed Mouse (Planet' Mammiferes).
Birds known only from mainland Chile include the Crag Chilia (Aves de Chile), the Chilean Tinamou (Aves de Chile), the Dusky Tapaculo (ARKive), the Seaside Cinclodes (Neotropical Birds), the Moustached Turca (Aves de Chile), the Chilean Mockingbird (ARKive), and the Slender-billed Parakeet (Arthur Grosset's Birds). Birds unique to the Juan Fernandez Islands include the Juan Fernandez Firecrown (EDGE), the Masafuera Rayadito (Neotropical Birds), and the Juan Fernandez Tit-tyrant (ARKive). Seabirds breeding only in Chile include the Pink-footed Shearwater (HBW), De Filippi's Petrel (ARKive), the Juan Fernandez Petrel (HBW), and the recently described Pincoya Storm Petrel (Species New to Science).
Reptiles known only from Chile include the Chilean Long-tailed Snake Philodryas chamissonis (Philodryas), the Chilean Iguana Callopistes maculatus (flickr), Phrynosaura (or Liolaemus) torresi (Reptile Database), Pristidactylus valeriae (ARKive), the Tarapaca Pacific Iguana Microlophus tarapacensis (ARKive), and about 40 species of Neotropical ground lizards such as Fabian's Lizard Liolaemus fabiani (flickr), the Zapallar Lizard Liolaemus zapallarensis (flickr), the Leopard Lizard Liolaemus leopardinus (flickr), and the Blackish-green Lizard Liolaemus nigroviridis (flickr).
The Helmeted Water Toad Calyptocephalella gayi (ARKive) and the three species of false toads Telmatobufo (EDGE) comprise the Calyptocephalellidae, an endemic family. Representing another almost endemic family is the Chile Darwin’s Frog Rhinoderma rufum (EDGE). Other endemic amphibians include Barrio’s Frog Insuetophrynus acarpicus (EDGE), the Concepcion Toad Rhinella arunco (flickr), the La Parva Spiny-chested Frog Alsodes tumultuosus (ARKive), the Zapahuira Water Frog Telmatobius zapahuirensis and Nibaldo's Wood Frog Batrachyla nibaldoi (both at Helen Díaz Páez), and the Contulmo Ground Frog Eupsophus contulmoensis (ARKive).
Two families of freshwater fish are restricted to Chile: the Mountain Catfish in the Nematogenyidae (PlanetCatfish) and the southern basses in the Percilidae (FishBase). Additional freshwater fish unique to Chile include Brachygalaxias gothei (FishBase), Orestias chungarensis (ARKive), Diplomystes nahuelbutaensis (especies chilenas), Trichomycterus chungaraensis (Univ. Chile pdf file), and Bullockia maldonadoi (PlanetCatfish).
genera of marine fish include the Araucanian Herring Strangomera (INPESCA),
a wrasse Malapterus
submarino) from the Juan Fernandez Islands, and a blenny Calliclinus (Guiamarina).
Easter Island has 29 endemic marine fish species
the Easter Island Butterflyfish
Chaetodon litus (eol), the
Easter Island Puffer
a wrasse Pseudolabrus
a squirrelfish Sargocentron
a filefish Cantherhines rapanui (eol), and
an endemic genus of goby Pascua
Studies pdf file).
Butterflies unique to Chile include Neomaenas simplex (flickr) and Eroessa chilensis (Ñuble Naturaleza). Endemic bee genera include Euherbstia (Abejas de Chile), Orphana (Bugs R Us), Neofidelia (Abejas de Chile), and Diphaglossa (Abejas de Chile). Other endemic insects include a dragonfly Hypopetalia pestilens (Natural Musings), a damselfly Antiagrion antigone (All Odonata), the longhorned beetles Acanthinodera cumingii (Surmagico) and Stenorhopalus flavicans (Coleoptera Neotropical), the stag beetles Sclerostomus cucullatus (flickr) and Erichius franzae (New World Scarab Beetles), a genus of tenebrionid beetles Gyriosomus (flickr), a jewel beetle Pterobothris barrigai (Coleoptera Neotropical), a weevil Aegorhinus albolineatus (flickr), and an ant Monomorium chilense (AntWiki). Endemic insect families include a scorpionfly Eomeropidae (Tree of Life) and a fly Evocoidae (Tree of Life).
Other invertebrates known solely from Chile include the the Common Rose Hair Tarantula Grammostola porteri (eol), a scorpion Bothriurus keyserlingi (flickr), a harvestman Metagyndes innata (flickr), a woodlouse Hawaiioscia rapui (ZooKeys), the velvet worms Metaperipatus inae and Metaperipatus blainvillei (Onychophora), a hermit crab Calcinus pascuensis (Polynesian Crustacea), the land snail genera Macrocyclis (Bram's Snail Site) and Chiliborus (flickr), and Father Englert’s Cowrie Erosaria englerti (CGDP). Endemic families include a leech Americobdellidae (Wikipedia) and millipedes Eudigonidae (AMNH pdf file).
Much of Chile is included in the Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests biodiversity hotspot (CEPF). In addition to mainland areas this hotspot includes the island ecoregions of the Juan Fernández Islands Temperate Forests (EoE) and the San Félix-San Ambrosio Islands Temperate Forests (EoE). The marine fauna of Easter Island is considered one of the world's most important marine centers of endemism (Columbia Univ. pdf file). An extensive overview of Chile's biota can be found at (Biodiversidad de Chile 9 MB pdf file).