addition to the
country's most famous endemic species, the Giant Panda (ARKive),
mammals unique to China include the possibly extinct Baiji or Yangtze
River Dolphin (EDGE),
Hainan Gymnure (EDGE),
Complex-toothed Flying Squirrel (eol),
Pere David's Rock Squirrel (Zootierliste),
the Ili Pika (flickr),
Golden Snub-nosed Monkey (ARKive),
the Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey (ARKive),
the Hainan Gibbon (ARKive),
Chinese Mountain Cat (National
Milu or Pere David's Deer (Ultimate
Ungulate), the White-lipped Deer (Ultimate
Ungulate), the Black Muntjac (ARKive),
Przewalski's Gazelle (ARKive),
and as a breeding species the Tibetan Antelope or
China is rich in pheasants found nowhere else including the Chinese Monal (ARKive), Reeves’s Pheasant (ARKive), Cabot's Tragopan (ARKive), and the Brown Eared Pheasant (ARKive). The Pink-tailed Bunting (Creagrus) is sometimes considered to belong to a family of its own, the Urocynchramidae. Other endemic birds include the Giant Laughingthrush (OBC), the Slaty Bunting (HBW), the Silver Oriole (OBC), the Chinese Grouse (ARKive), the Tibetan Babax (ARKive), Roborovski's Rosefinch (HBW), Sillem's Mountain Finch (OBC), the Rusty-throated Parrotbill (ARKive), the Emei Shan Liocichla (ARKive), and the Sichuan Jay (EDGE)
Reptiles known only from China include the Chinese Alligator (ARKive), the Chinese Crocodile Lizard (ARKive), the Splendid Japalure (Wikipedia), Gail's Eyelid Skink (flickr), the Hongyuan Toad-headed Agama (ADW), Swinhoe's Gecko (flickr), the recently described gecko Goniurosaurus yingdeensis (ms-goniurosaurus.de), the Tibetan Spring Snake (ARKive), the Line-shaped Snake (Reptiles New to Science), the Twin-spotted Ratsnake (ratsnakes.com), the Mangshan Viper (ARKive), the Likiang Pitviper (Reptile Database), and the Golden-headed Box Turtle (Turtles of the World).
exclusively found in
China include the Shangcheng Stout Salamander (Salamanders
the Chinhai Spiny Newt (EDGE),
the paddletail newts Pachytriton (Salamanders
the Hainan Flathead Toad Parapelophryne
the Fujian Frog (ARKive),
the Emei Moustache Toad (ARKive),
and the toothed toads
Chinese Giant Salamander (EDGE)
is the world's largest amphibian and the Concave-eared
Torrent Frog Odorrana
is notable for its ability to emit ultrasonic calls.
China is second only to Brazil in endemic freshwater fish species. Genera unique to China include the critically endangered Chinese Paddlefish Psephurus (BBC), Pseudexostoma (PlanetCatfish), the Beautiful Hillstream Loach Traccatichthys (Loaches Online), blind cave loaches Protocobitis (Google Books), the Chinese High Fin Sucker Myxocyprinus (James S Koga), the golden-line barbels Sinocyclocheilus (Science Museums of China), Rhinogobio (eol), Anabarilius (eol), Aspiorhynchus (eol), and the Slender Mandarinfish Coreosiniperca (Science Museums of China).
Butterflies restricted to China include the Three-tailed Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis thaidina (flickr), the Chinese Gifu Butterfly Luehdorfia chinensis (Science Museums of China), and the endemic genera Mesapia (Markku Savela), Sinonympha (BOLD), Gonerilia (Learn about Butterflies), Tatinga (Learn about Butterflies), and Davidina (SZMN). Other invertebrates unique to China include a land snail Angustopila dominikae (Guardian), a freshwater mussel Pseudobaphia biesiana (MUSSELp), a freshwater crab Sinopotamon fukienense (Freshwater Crab Info), a huntsman spider Sinopoda yaojingensis (Endemic Spiders of China), a stag beetle Lucanus hermani (InsectaCulture), and a ground beetle Aristochroa splendida (p. 12 of CAS pdf file). Endemic families include mayflies Siphluriscidae (Florida Entomologist), damselflies Pseudolestidae (All Odonata), centipedes Mimopidae (Taylor & Francis), a freshwater snail Helicostoidae (Gallica), and an aquatic worm Caridinophilidae (BHL).
China has two endemic families of vascular plants. The Hardy Rubber Tree Eucommia ulmoides (ARKive) is the sole member of the Eucommiaceae and is extinct in the wild. The Maidenhair Tree Ginkgo biloba (Kew) is the sole member not only of an endemic family, the Ginkgoaceae, but also of the order Ginkgoales and the class Ginkgoopsida making it a true living fossil. Three other Chinese plants are sometimes placed in their own families: Acanthochlamys bracteata (Flora of China), the Yellowhorn Xanthoceras sorbifolium (Kew), and the Handkerchief Tree or Dove Tree Davidia involucrata (Kew).
Additional endemic genera of plants include the Dawn Redwood Metasequoia (Wikipedia), the Jacktree Sinojackia (NCSU), the Tara Wingceltis Pteroceltis (NCSU), the Chinese Pearlbloom Tree Poliothyrsis (asian flora), the Golden Larch Pseudolarix (Wikipedia), Paraisometrum (BBC), Pyrgophyllum (Smithsonian), and several orchids: Aceratorchis (asian flora), Nothodoritis (IOPSE), Ischnogyne (IOPSE), and Changnienia (flickr). Other spectacular plants unique to China include the Regal Lily Lilium regale (Nova), a gentian Gentiana hexaphylla (Flora of China), a primrose Primula blinii (Flora of China) and over 400 endemic Rhododendron species such as Rhododendron wardii (Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains). About 16915 species of vascular plants are endemic to China (Biodiversity Science).
The richest temperate country for endemics, China is included in several biodiversity hotspots: Mountains of Southwest China (CEPF), Mountains of Central Asia (CEPF), Indo-Burma (CEPF), and Himalaya (CEPF). Important aquatic areas include the Yangtze River and Lakes (WWF), the Xi Jiang or Pearl River (WWF), and the Southern Japan, Taiwan and Southern China coral reef hotspot (Columbia Univ. pdf file).