Freshwater fish unique
to Croatia include the Visovac Goby
Knipowitschia mrakovcici (IUCN Red List), the Cave Minnow Phoxinellus (or Telestes) fontinalis (Ittiofauna), the Cetina Riffle Dace Telestes ukliva (Ittiofauna), and the Croatian
Phoxinellus (or Telestes) croaticus (AZO). Additional endemic freshwater fish include the
Zrmanja Dace Leuciscus
the Croatian Dace
Leuciscus (or Telestes)
polylepis (ARKive), the Zrmanja Trout Salmo zrmanjensis (Ittiofauna), and the Visovac trout
Salmo visovacensis (Ribe Hrvatske). Recently described species include the Jadova Minnow Delminichthys jadovensis (Ittiofauna), the Krbava Minnow Delminichthys
krbavensis (Ittiofauna), the daces Telestes miloradi and Telestes karsticus (both at Species-ID), and the loaches Cobitis
illyrica (Ittiofauna) and Cobitis jadovaensis (Ribe Hrvatske).
A marine fish exclusive to Croatia is the Grotto Goby
Speleogobius trigloides (FishBase), which is also an endemic genus.
The millipede Biokoviella mauriesi from Biokovo Mountain (p. 68 of Hrcak pdf file) is the sole member of an endemic family, the Biokoviellidae. Among numerous cave invertebrates known only from Croatia include the round fungus beetles Radziella styx (Insects on Stamps) and Leptomeson bujasi (CBSS), a rove beetle Machaerites pavleki (CBSS), the ground beetles Biokovoaphenopsis radici (p. 78 of Hrcak pdf file) and Velebitaphaenops giganteus (Hrcak pdf file), the snails Zospeum tholussum (EurekAlert!) and Sadleriana cavernosa (ARKive), a leech Croatobranchus mestrovi (Croatian Speleological Server), the world's only subterranean freshwater sponge Eunapias subterraneus (CBSS), Krk's Iliric Woodlouse Alpioniscus christiania (Spilja Biserujka), and several freshwater amphipods: Echinogammarus cari (Freshwater Amphipods), Niphargus miljeticus (Niphargus), and Niphargus hvarensis (Niphargus). Endemic molluscs include the freshwater snails Bithynia cettinensis (ARKive) and Lanzaia skradinensis (ARKive) and several land snails: Delima edmibrani (Telašćica), Meledella werneri (p. 114 of Hrcak pdf file), Vidovicia coerulans (ARKive), and Cochlostoma cinerascens (AnimalBase).
The Velebit Degenia Degenia velebitica (Gunther Blaich) is an endemic genus in the mustard family. Also sometimes placed in an endemic genus (Cyathoselinum) is Seseli tomentosum (FCD). Plants found only in Croatia include the Dubrovnik Knapweed Centaurea ragusina (Janjina), the Croatian Rock-cress Cardaminopsis croatica (Gunther Blaich), Iris adriatica (FCD), the Dalmatian Rockbell Edraianthus dalmaticus (TrekNature), the Dalmatian Hyacinth Hyacinthella dalmatica (Gunther Blaich), Argyrolobium dalmaticum (FCD), Kitaibel's Primrose Primula kitaibeliana (Primula World), Allium croaticum (FCD), Puccinellia teyberi (FCD), Saxifraga velebitica (PBase), Crocus malyi (AGS), Dianthus velebiticus (FCD), Centaurea dalmatica (FCD), Ucka's Bellflower Campanula tommasiniana (eol), and the orchids Serapias istriaca (istrianet.org) and Ophrys dinarica (Gunther Blaich).
Portions of Croatia are included in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot (CI). Among the nation's most important terrestrial ecoregions for endemic species are the Illyrian Deciduous Forests (EoE) and the Dinaric Mountains Mixed Forests (EoE). Dalmatia (FEOW) is an important freshwater ecoregion. An overview of Croatia's flora and fauna can be found in "Biodiversity of Croatia" (DZZP 6 MB pdf file).