unique to Cuba
include the Cuban Solenodon (EDGE),
Little Goblin Bat (ARKive), the Cuban Greater Funnel-eared Bat Natalus primus (Huffington), and the Cuban Red Bat Lasiurus insularis
(p. 6 of RELCOM
8 MB pdf file). Three endemic genera of large rodents are the
Prehensile-tailed Hutia Mysateles
Survivors), the Cuban Hutia Capromys (eol),
and the Little Earth Hutia Mesocapromys (EDGE).
The Bee Hummingbird (ARKive) is the world's smallest bird. Endemic bird genera are represented by the Zapata Rail (BirdLife Int'l), the Zapata Sparrow (IBC), the Zapata Wren (ARKive), the Blue-headed Quail-dove (Neotropical Birds), the Cuban Screech Owl (IBC), the Cuban Green Woodpecker (Neotropical Birds), and the Oriente Warbler (Arthur Grosset's Birds). Other birds unique to Cuba include the Cuban Finch (Culture Quest), Fernandina’s Flicker (ARKive), the Cuban Nightjar (IBC), the Cuban Tody (Neotropical Birds), the Cuban Trogon (IBC), the Cuban Parakeet (ARKive), the Cuban Kite (HBW), and Gundlach’s Hawk (Peregrine Fund).
Reptiles found only in Cuba include the Cuban Crocodile Crocodylus rhombifer (ARKive), the Cuban Boa Epicrates angulifer (ARKive), the Canasi Dwarf Boa Tropidophis celiae (Caribherp), the Broad-striped Racerlet Arrhyton taeniatum (flickr), the Pallid Curlytail Leiocephalus raviceps (Field Museum pdf file), the Cuban Croaking Gecko Aristelliger reyesi (Caribherp), the Cuban Night Lizard Cricosaura typica (Digimorph), and the Cuban Pale-necked Galliwasp Diploglossus delasagra (Caribherp). Among over 60 endemic anoles are the Knight Anole Anolis equestris (Smithsonian National Zoo), the Cuban Stream Anole Anolis vermiculatus (flickr), and the Oriente Bearded Anole Anolis (or Xiphosurus) porcus (Reptile Database). The worm lizards of the genus Cadea (Caribherp) (eol) are sometimes considered an endemic family, the Cadeidae.
Amphibians known exclusively from Cuba include the Cuban Pine Toad (ARKive), the Cuban Spotted Toad (ARKive), the Cuban Robber Frog (ARKive), the Turquino Robber Frog (ARKive), the Cuban Giant Frog (ARKive), the Cuban Red-rumped Frog (Caribherp), and the Orange Long-nosed Frog (ARKive). The Monte Iberia Dwarf Frog (AmphibiaWeb) is one of the world's smallest frogs.
Freshwater fish that live solely in the rivers and streams of Cuba include the Cuban Gar Atractosteus tristoechus (BioLib), the Cuban Cavefish Lucifuga (Univ. Laval pdf file), the Joturo Cichlasoma (or Nandopsis) ramsdeni (Cichlid Room Companion), the Barred Topminnow Quintana atrizona (FishBase), the Goldbelly Topminnow Girardinus falcatus (FishBase), the Cuban Killifish Cubanichthys cubensis (Cuba en el Aquarista), the Black Metallic Livebearer Alepidomus evermanni (eol), and the Isle of Pines Rivulus Rivulus insulaepinorum (It Rains Fish). Recently described endemic marine fish include a basslet Gramma dejongi (FishBase) and a barnacle blenny Acanthemblemaria cubana (Solenodon pdf file).
Butterflies restricted to Cuba include Poey’s Black Swallowtail Papilio caiguanabus (Butterflies of America), Gundlach's Swallowtail Parides (Papilio) gundlachianus (Rufford), the Cuban Kite Eurytides celadon (Butterflies of America), Calisto occulta (Wikipedia), and Greta cubana (flickr). Other endemic invertebrates include the Cuban Leafcutting Ant Atta insularis (es.wikipedia.org), a day flying moth Urania boisduvalii (NABA), a firefly Alecton discoidalis (Wikipedia), a longhorned beetle Lepturgotrichona (or Lepturges) cubaecola (Harvard), a caponiid spider Nops siboney (Field Museum), a tarantula Phormictopus auratus (theraphosidae.cz), a scorpion Alayotityus juraguaensis (Field Museum pdf file), and a freshwater snail Pomacea poeyana (Wikipedia). A spectacular land snail fauna of over 1000 endemic species includes Liguus blainianus (EcuRed), the Cuban Painted Tree Snail Polymita picta (jaxshells.org) (EcuRed), Zachrysia auricoma (EcuRed), the Cuban Porcupine Shell Blaesospira echinus (b-cabinet), and Cerion ceiba (Cerion).
Cuba has over 3000 plant species found nowhere else. Endemic genera include the palms Gastrococos (PACSOA) and Hemithrinax (ARKive), a cycad Microcycas (Cycad Pages), Siemensia (Plants of Viñales), Shafera (Picasa), Antillanthus (Picasa), Hebestigma (Plants of Viñales), Linodendron (p. 61 of Gijón 3 MB pdf file), Ceratopyxis (Plants of Viñales), Henleophytum (Malpighiaceae), Adenoa (Kew), and Ancistranthus (Plants of Viñales). Orchids unique to Cuba include Encyclia bocourtii (IOPSE), Tolumnia guibertiana (IOPSE), Broughtonia ortgiesiana (orquideas-katia.com), and Tetramicra eulophiae (orquideas-katia.com). Other endemic species include the Cuban Pine Pinus cubensis (Wikipedia), the Dwarf Turk's Cap Cactus Melocactus matanzanus (desert-tropicals.com), Dendrocereus nudiflorus (CactiGuide.com), Marcgravia evenia (National Geographic), and the Cuban Petticoat Palm Copernicia macroglossa (PACSOA).
Cuba is part of the Caribbean Islands biodiversity hotspot (CEPF) and the Cuba - Cayman Islands freshwater ecoregion (FEOW). Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Cuban Moist Forests (EoE), the Cuban Cactus Scrub (EoE), and the Cuban Pine Forests (EoE). Lists of Cuban species including information on endemism can be found at (Diversidad Biológica Cubana).