bird species now
appear to be extinct in neighboring Haiti
and survive only in the Dominican Republic: Ridgway’s
Bay-breasted Cuckoo (BirdLife
and the Eastern Chat-Tanager (IBC)
(flickr). The White-fronted Quail-Dove Geotrygon leucometopia (flickr) is sometimes considered distinct from the Grey-fronted Quail-Dove Geotrygon caniceps of Cuba.
The Dominican Republic is home to the world's smallest lizard, the Jaragua Dwarf Gecko Sphaerodactylus ariasae (BBC). A diverse endemic anole fauna includes the Dominican Giant Anole Anolis baleatus (flickr), the Cordillera Central Twig Anole Anolis insolitus (flickr), and the Red-fanned Stout Anole Anolis marcanoi (Reptile Database). Other endemic reptiles include the Hispaniolan Ground Iguana Cyclura ricordi (ARKive), the Serpentine Four-toed Galliwasp Celestus agasepsoides (Caribherp), the Santo Domingo Curly-tailed Lizard Leiocephalus lunatus (wildherps.com), the Hispaniolan Giant Blindsnake Typhlops schwartzi (Caribherp), and the Martin Garcia Threadsnake Mitophis asbolepis (Caribherp).
Amphibians unique to the Dominican Republic include the Hispaniolan Yellow Tree Frog (ARKive), the Hispaniolan Crestless Toad (IUCN Red List) (eol), the Yellow Split-toed Frog (ARKive), the Montane Cricket Frog (Caribherp), the Hispaniolan Cordillera Frog (ARKive), and the Hispaniolan Melodius Frog (flickr).
Freshwater fish restricted to the Dominican Republic include the Hispaniolan Rivulus Rivulus roloffi (flickr), the Sulfur Limia Limia sulphurophila (FishBase), Perugia’s Limia Limia perugiae (eol), the Striped Limia Limia zonata (flickr), the Elegant Molly Poecilia elegans (flickr), the Jaragua Pupfish Cyprinodon nichollsi (AMNH pdf file), and the Black-and-blue Pupfish Cyprinodon higuey (FishBase).
Beetles known only from the Dominican Republic include a ground beetle Platynus baorucensis (Harvard Univ. Caribbean Insects), and the longhorned beetles Oedudes anulatus (Species ID), Phoenicus sanguinipennis (USDA pdf file), and Xixuthrus domingoensis (Smithsonian). Endemic butterflies include Calisto tasajera (Butterflies of America), Calisto galli (Butterflies of America), Strymon andrewi (Butterflies of America), and Cyclargus kathleena (Butterflies of America). Other endemic insects include a silk moth Hispaniodirphia lemaireiana (Saturniidae World), a tiger moth Westindia haxairei (BOLD), an ant Pheidole harlequina (Discover Life), and seven recently described species of stinkbugs (p. 31 of NDSU pdf file). Other endemic invertebrates include a cave-dwelling amphipod Ottenwalderia kymbalion (Contributions to Zoology), a pholcid spider Tainonia samana (Pholcidae), and several land snails: Abbottella moreletiana (Femorale), Cerion yumaensis (Cerion), Chondropomium hooksi (OSU), and Helicina prasinata (Internet Archive),.
Orchids found solely in the Dominican Republic include Lepanthopsis constanzensis (IOPSE), Tolumnia henekenii (Orchids Online), and Psychilis dodii (IOPSE). Other endemic plants include the Dominican Cherry Palm Pseudophoenix ekmanii (ARKive), a silver palm Coccothrinax boschiana (Int'l Palm Soc.), Podocarpus hispaniolensis (Albion College), Pitcairnia domingensis (FCBS), Cinnamodendron ekmanii (Top Tropicals), Vachellia barahonensis (acaciaID), Cubanola domingensis (Wikipedia), Magnolia pallescens (flickr), the Bayahibe Rose Pereskia quisqueyana (ARKive), Melocactus pedernalensis (flickr), Isidorea pungens (flickr), and Pinguicula casabitoana (World of Pinguicula). Endemic genera include Salcedoa (Espacinsular), Anacaona (NYBG), Linnaeosicyos (UMSL pdf file), Sarcopilea (flickr), Vegaea (FTBG), and Pedinopetalum (NYBG).
The Dominican Republic is part of the Caribbean Islands biodiversity hotspot (CI). Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Hispaniolan Pine Forests (EoE) and the Hispaniolan Moist Forests (EoE). With Haiti now almost completely deforested, many formerly more widely ranging Hispaniolan endemic species (in addition to the birds mentioned above) and genera (15 terrestrial vertebrate genera are unique to the island) may already survive only in the Dominican Republic.