India include the Lion-tailed Macaque (ARKive),
the Southern Plains Gray Langur (ARKive),
the Nilgiri Langur (ARKive),
the Bonnet Macaque (ARKive)
and the Arunachal Macaque (BBC).
Other endemic mammals include the Nilgiri Marten (ARKive),
the Brown Palm Civet (ARKive),
the Malabar Civet (ARKive),
the Indian Giant Squirrel (ARKive),
Namdapha Flying Squirrel (Planet'
Mammiferes), and the Long-tailed
Climbing Mouse (ARKive).
Also sometimes considered full species are the Khur (Wikipedia),
the Kashmir Deer (ARKive),
the Sangai (Shah
the Upland Barasingha (ARKive),
and the Deccan Chinkara (flickr).
genera are the
Nilgiri Tahr (ARKive),
the Pygmy Hog (ARKive),
Madras Tree Shrew (JoTT
Salim Ali's Fruit Bat (ARKive),
Elvira Rat (Wikipedia),
Spiny Dormouse (Wikipedia).
Birds found only in India include the Himalayan Quail (BirdLife Int'l), the Nicobar Scrubfowl (OBC), the Gray Junglefowl (IBC), the Forest Owlet (EDGE), the Andaman Serpent Eagle (IBC), the Narcondam Hornbill (ARKive), the Malabar Parakeet (WPT), the Nilgiri Woodpigeon (ARKive), Jerdon’s Courser (EDGE), the Crimson-backed Sunbird (IBC), the Black-and-orange Flycatcher (Wikipedia), the Nilgiri Laughingthrush (KalyanVarma), the Green Avadavat (ARKive), and the Bugun Liocichla (Birds of India).
Reptile genera restricted to India include the the Cochin Forest Cane Turtle (ARKive), the Bay Island Forest Lizard (Reptile Database), the Chilka Spotted Skink (AHR pdf file), Ristella (ARKive), Sepsophis (Species New to Science), the narrow-headed snakes Xylophis (ARKive), and three shieldtail snakes: Teretrurus (ARKive), Melanophidium (eol) and Plectrurus (ARKive). Other endemic reptiles include the Andaman Day Gecko (phelsumania), the Indian Golden Gecko (Zoos' Print pdf file), the Southern Flying Lizard (Wikipedia), Whitaker’s Boa (Reptile Database), the Andaman Cobra (Andaman & Nicobar Snakes), Bibron's Coral Snake (flickr), and the Nicobar Pitviper (Andaman & Nicobar Snakes).
India has four endemic amphibian families: the Purple Frog Nasikabatrachidae (EDGE), the dancing frogs Micrixalidae (Mongabay), the Kerala Indian Frog Ranixalidae (EDGE), and caecilians of the genus Chikila Chikilidae (Species New to Science). Other endemic amphibian genera include the toads Ghatophryne (ARKive) and Xanthophryne (ARKive), the frogs Nyctibatrachus (ARKive), Melanobatrachus (EDGE), Ghatixalus (ARKive), Beddomixalus and Mercurana (both at Species New to Science),Minervarya (WG Portal), and the caecilians Geogeneophis (ARKive), Uraeotyphlus (flickr), and Indotyphlus (AmphibiaWeb). Other endemic amphibians include the Malabar Flying Frog (Wikipedia), the Malabar Tree Toad (ARKive), the Resplendent Bush Frog (BBC), and Philautus chlorosomma (TH-Delhi).
Among numerous endemic freshwater fish genera are Mesonoemacheilus (Loaches Online), Bhavania (Western Ghats Fishes), Horaglanis (FishBase), Osteochilichthys (flickr), Rohtee (PFK), Hypselobarbus (FishBase), and Betadevario (PFK). The Kryptoglanidae (Species New to Science) is a recently recognized endemic catfish family and Horabagrus (PlanetCatfish) is also sometimes considered to comprise an endemic family, the Horabagridae. Other endemic freshwater fish include the Denison Barb (PFK), the Canara Pearlspot (Cichlid Room Companion), the Malabar Pufferfish (ARKive), the Zebra Loach (Loaches Online), and the Brown Spike-tailed Paradise Fish (FishBase). Endemic marine fish include the Jester Goby (eol), a wrasse Xyrichtys cyanifrons (eol), and a filefish Lalmohania velutina (FishBase).
Invertebrate families known solely from India include an amphipod crustacean Kotumsaridae (Zootaxa pdf file), a land snail Staffordiidae (Wikipedia), a beetle Podabrocephalidae (MNHN), and grasshoppers Mastacideidae (OSF). Endemic butterflies include the Malabar Rose (Butterflies of India), the Palni Fritillary (Butterflies of India), the Malabar Tree Nymph (Butterflies of India), the Nilgiri Tiger (Butterflies of India), and the Southern Birdwing (Indian Butterflies). Other endemic arthropods include the Syrandiri Clubtail Davidioides martini (Asia Dragonfly), a stag beetle Odontolabis burmeisteri (flickr), a longhorned beetle Acanthophorus serraticornis (TrekNature), the Jumping Ant (Wikipedia), an ant-mimicking planthopper Formiscurra indicus (Guardian), and the Wonderful Parachute Spider (ARKive). Endemic molluscs include Cyclophorus altivagus (Sahyadri), Indrella ampulla (NHM - London), Pseudomulleria dalyi (MUSSELp), and Cremnochonchus syhadrensis (Hindu).
Among some 7000 endemic vascular plants are such orchids as Paphiopedilum druryi (ARKive), Schoenorchis manipurensis (IOPSE), Phalaenopsis speciosa (IOPSE), and the genus Smithsonia (IOPSE). Endemic genera include an aroid Anaphyllum (flickr), a palm Bentinckia (WG Portal), Agasthiyamalaia (BIOTIK), Blepharistemma (flickr), Cynarospermum (flickr), Erinocarpus (ARKive), Adenoon (flickr), Lamprachaenium (flickr), Meteoromyrtus (ENVIS), Haplanthodes (flickr), Moullava (flickr), Otonephelium (WG Portal), Jerdonia (Picasa), and Pinda (flickr). Other endemic plants include the Neelakurinji (flickr), the Forest Spider Lily (flickr), the Siroi Lily (Wikipedia), a banana Musa velutina (UBC BG), Geranium clarkei (BBC), the Surangi (flickr), Impatiens tomentosa (flickr), Rhododendron macabeanum (rhododendron.org), and the Khasi Pitcher Plant (Wikipedia).
India includes portions of four biodiversity hotspots: the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka (CEPF), the Himalaya (CEPF), the Indo-Burma (CEPF), and the Sundaland (CEPF). India also includes part of the Northern Indian Ocean coral reef hotspot (Columbia Univ. pdf file). Important freshwater ecoregions for endemism include the Western Ghats (IUCN), the Ganges Delta and Plain (FEOW), and the Eastern Himalayas (IUCN). The species newly described from India in 2012 are at (ZSI pdf). A guide to India's endemic vertebrate species is at (ZSI pdf file).