India include the Lion-tailed Macaque (ARKive),
the Southern Plains Gray Langur (ARKive),
the Nilgiri Langur (ARKive),
the Bonnet Macaque (ARKive)
and the Arunachal Macaque (BBC).
Other endemic mammals include the Nilgiri Marten (ARKive),
the Brown Palm Civet (ARKive),
the Malabar Civet (ARKive),
the Indian Giant Squirrel (ARKive),
Namdapha Flying Squirrel (India
Nature Watch), and the Long-tailed
Climbing Mouse (ARKive).
Also sometimes considered full species are the Khur (Wikipedia),
the Kashmir Deer (ARKive),
the Sangai (Shah
the Upland Barasingha (ARKive),
and the Deccan Chinkara (flickr).
genera are the
Nilgiri Tahr (ARKive),
the Pygmy Hog (ARKive),
Madras Tree Shrew (JoTT
Salim Ali's Fruit Bat (ARKive),
Large Rock Rat (EDGE),
Spiny Dormouse (Wikipedia).
Birds found only in India include the Himalayan Quail (Wikipedia), the Nicobar Scrubfowl (OBC), the Gray Junglefowl (HBW), the Forest Owlet (EDGE), the Andaman Serpent Eagle (HBW), the Narcondam Hornbill (ARKive), the Malabar Parakeet (WPT), the Nilgiri Woodpigeon (ARKive), Jerdon’s Courser (EDGE), the Crimson-backed Sunbird (HBW), the Black-and-orange Flycatcher (Wikipedia), the Nilgiri Laughingthrush (KalyanVarma), the Green Avadavat (ARKive), the White-headed Starling (OBC), and the Bugun Liocichla (Birds of India).
Reptile genera restricted to India include the the Cochin Forest Cane Turtle (ARKive), the Bay Island Forest Lizard (Reptile Database), Barkudia (BHL), Ristella (ARKive), Sepsophis (Species New to Science), the narrow-headed snakes Xylophis (ARKive), and three shieldtail snakes: Teretrurus (ARKive), Melanophidium (eol) and Plectrurus (ARKive). Other endemic reptiles include the Andaman Day Gecko (India Nature Watch), the Indian Golden Gecko (Zoos' Print pdf file), the Southern Flying Lizard (Wikipedia), Whitaker’s Boa (Reptile Database), the Andaman Cobra (Andaman & Nicobar Snakes), Bibron's Coral Snake (flickr), and the Nicobar Pitviper (Andaman & Nicobar Snakes).
India has four endemic amphibian families: the Purple Frog Nasikabatrachidae (EDGE), the dancing frogs Micrixalidae (Mongabay), the Kerala Indian Frog Ranixalidae (EDGE), and caecilians of the genus Chikila Chikilidae (Species New to Science). Other endemic amphibian genera include the toads Ghatophryne (ARKive) and Xanthophryne (ARKive), the frogs Nyctibatrachus (ARKive), Melanobatrachus (EDGE), Ghatixalus (ARKive), Beddomixalus and Mercurana (both at Species New to Science), Minervarya (WG Portal), Blythophryne (Species New to Science), and the caecilians Geogeneophis (ARKive), Uraeotyphlus (flickr), and Indotyphlus (AmphibiaWeb). Other endemic amphibians include the Malabar Flying Frog (Wikipedia), the Malabar Tree Toad (ARKive), and the Resplendent Bush Frog (BBC).
Among numerous endemic freshwater fish genera are Mesonoemacheilus (Loaches Online), Bhavania (h2o forest), Horaglanis (FishBase), Osteochilichthys (flickr), Rohtee (PFK), Hypselobarbus (FishBase), and Betadevario (PFK). The Kryptoglanidae (Species New to Science) is a recently recognized endemic catfish family and Horabagrus (PlanetCatfish) is also sometimes considered to comprise an endemic family, the Horabagridae. Other endemic freshwater fish include the Denison Barb (PFK), the Canara Pearlspot (Cichlid Room Companion), the Malabar Pufferfish (ARKive), the Zebra Loach (Loaches Online), and the Brown Spike-tailed Paradise Fish (FishBase). Endemic marine fish include the Jester Goby (eol), a wrasse Xyrichtys cyanifrons (eol), and a filefish Lalmohania velutina (FishBase).
Endemic butterflies include the Malabar Rose (Butterflies of India), the Palni Fritillary (Butterflies of India), the Malabar Tree Nymph (Butterflies of India), the Nilgiri Tiger (Butterflies of India), and the Sahyadri Birdwing (Butterflies of India). Other endemic insects include the Syrandiri Clubtail Davidioides martini (All Odonata), a stag beetle Odontolabis burmeisteri (flickr), a longhorned beetle Acanthophorus serraticornis (TrekNature), the Jumping Ant (Wikipedia), and an ant-mimicking planthopper Formiscurra indicus (Guardian).
Other endemic invertebrates include the Wonderful Parachute Spider (ARKive) and the freshwater crabs Ghatiana splendida and Gubernatoriana thackerayi (The Wire).
Endemic molluscs include Cyclophorus
- London), Pseudomulleria
Invertebrate families known solely from India include an
amphipod crustacean Kotumsaridae (Zootaxa
pdf file), a land snail Staffordiidae (Wikipedia),
a beetle Podabrocephalidae
grasshoppers Mastacideidae (OSF).
Among some 7000 endemic vascular plants are such orchids as Paphiopedilum druryi (ARKive), Schoenorchis manipurensis (IOPSE), Phalaenopsis speciosa (IOPSE), and the genus Smithsonia (IOPSE). Endemic genera include an aroid Anaphyllum (flickr), a palm Bentinckia (WG Portal), Agasthiyamalaia (BIOTIK), Blepharistemma (flickr), Cynarospermum (flickr), Erinocarpus (ARKive), Adenoon (flickr), Lamprachaenium (flickr), Meteoromyrtus (Wikipedia), Haplanthodes (flickr), Moullava (flickr), Otonephelium (WG Portal), Jerdonia (Picasa), and Pinda (flickr). Other endemic plants include the Neelakurinji (flickr), the Forest Spider Lily (flickr), the Siroi Lily (Wikipedia), Geranium clarkei (BBC), the Surangi (flickr), Impatiens tomentosa (flickr), Rhododendron macabeanum (rhododendron.org), and the Khasi Pitcher Plant (Wikipedia).
India includes portions of four biodiversity hotspots: the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka (CEPF), the Himalaya (CEPF), the Indo-Burma (CEPF), and the Sundaland (CEPF). India also includes part of the Northern Indian Ocean coral reef hotspot (Columbia Univ. pdf file). Important freshwater ecoregions for endemism include the Western Ghats (IUCN), the Ganges Delta and Plain (FEOW), and the Eastern Himalayas (IUCN). The species newly described from India in 2012 are at (ZSI pdf). A guide to India's endemic vertebrate species is at (ZSI pdf file).