Israel and Palestine
practical reasons Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip are
Mammals found only in this region include four chromosomal species of blind mole rat (Backhuys) and the Negev Shrew (teva.org.il). The Acacia Gazelle (teva.org.il) is sometimes considered a full species.
amphibians include a recently discovered tree frog Hyla heinzsteinitzi
and the Hula Painted Frog (ARKive)
which has been recently rediscovered after being long feared extinct
and is now recognized as the sole surviving species of the genus Latonia (BBC).
Freshwater fish species unique to the area include the Kinneret Bleak Acanthobrama terraesanctae (FishBase) (BHL), the Yarkon Bream Acanthobrama telavivensis (IUCN), a loach Nemacheilus dori (Practical Fishkeeping), an extinct bleak Acanthobrama (or Mirogrex) hulensis (Tel Aviv Univ.), and the possibly extinct Long-jaw Tristram Tilapia Tristramella sacra (Tel Aviv Univ.) (BHL). Ben-Tuvia’s Goby Didogobius bentuvii (Marine Species) is apparently known only from the type collected in the Mediterranean off the mouth of the Rubin River.
Endemic insects include a jewel beetle Xantheremia freidbergi (Israel Insect World), a scarab Anoxioides bytinskisalzi (glaphyridae.com), the longhorned beetles Cortodera kochi (Israel Insect World) and Agapanthia orbachi (p. 49 of Munis pdf file), the ants Anochetus bytinskii (AntWiki) and Camponotus kefir (AntWiki), and a grasshopper Sphingonotus angulatus (OSF).
The most distinctive
endemic invertebrate is a blind scorpion Akrav israchanani (Snail's
pdf file) known only from Ayyalon Cave and the sole member of the
family Akravidae. Other species unique to Ayyalon Cave include a blind prawn Typhlocaris ayyaloni
endemic invertebrates include an isopod crustacean Typhlocirolana
15 on p. 6 of Decapoda
AToL pdf file), a huntsman spider Cerbalus
jumping spider Phlegra
of the World), a scorpion Birulatus israelensis
pdf file), the
land snails Trochoidea
Journals), and a centipede Cryptops
Among about 165 vascular plant species known solely from the region are the Dark-purple Iris Iris atropurpurea (Flora of Israel), a sedge Cyperus sharonensis (Flora of Israel), a bedstraw Galium philistaeum (Flora of Israel), an orchid Anacamptis israelitica (SOF), a stork's bill Erodium telavivense (Wild Flowers of Israel), a sorrel Rumex aeroplaniformis (Flora of Israel), the Jaffa Groundsel Senecio joppensis (Flora of Israel), Bufonia ramonensis (Flora of Israel), Capparis ramonensis (Flora of Israel), Hormuzakia negevensis (Flora of Israel), the Danin Fennel Ferula daninii (Flora of Israel), Plantago sabulosa (Flora of Israel), Allium negevense (Flora of Israel), and Allium tardiflorum (Flora of Israel). Mosheovia (Flora of Israel) is sometimes considered an endemic genus distinct from the widespread Scrophularia.
Israel and Palestine are included in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot (CEPF). Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Eastern Mediterranean Conifer- sclerophyllous- broadleaf Forests (EoE) and the Southern Anatolian Montane Conifer and Deciduous Forests (EoE). Important freshwater ecoregions include the Coastal Levant (FEOW) and the Jordan River (FEOW).