Iran is the last remaining home of a spectacular subspecies, the Asiatic Cheetah (ICS). Endemic mammal species include the Zagros Mountains Mouse-like Hamster (BioLib), the Avicenna Field Mouse Apodemus avicennicus (Iran Rodents), the Iranian Jerboa (Academic Journals pdf file), the jerboas Jaculus thaleri and Allactaga toussi (both at Iran Rodents), and the Iranian Shrew (ADW). Sometimes considered full species are the Esfahan Sheep (Google Books), the Laristan Sheep (TrekNature), and the Western Jebeer Gazelle (Panoramio).
The Iranian Ground Jay (Birds
is an endemic bird species.
Reptiles unique to Iran include the Latifi’s Viper (ARKive), a horned viper Pseudocerastes urarachnoides (Reptile Database), Rechinger's Dwarf Snake (Biologiezentrum pdf file), Andreas’ Racer (Reptile Database), the Zebra Snake (CalPhotos), the Iranian Worm Snake (CalPhotos), an angular-toed gecko Cyrtopodion kiabii (Guardian), the Iranian Keel-scaled Gecko (Reptile Database), the Thick-tailed Tuberculated Gecko (Reptile Database), Latifi's Dwarf Gecko (Reptile Database), the Kurdistan Leaf-toed Gecko (Reptile Database), the Lut Desert Toad-headed Agama (ResearchGate), the Persian Snake Skink (Reptile Database), the Lalehzar Racerunner (lacerta.de), and Steiner's Lacerta (Reptile Database). Parsigecko is an endemic genus (Species New to Science).
Amphibians with a range restricted to Iran include the Luristan Newt Neurergus kaiseri (EDGE), the Kurdistan Newt Neurergus microspilotus (ARKive), the Persian Brook Salamander Paradactylodon persicus (eol), the Gorgan Mountain Salamander Paradactylodon gorganensis (EDGE), the Iranian Wood Frog Rana pseudodalmatina (AmphibiaWeb), and the Lorestan Toad Bufotes luristanicus (AmphibiaWeb).
Freshwater fish genera found nowhere else include the Hormuz Cichlid Iranocichla (Freshwater Fishes of Iran), the Iran Cave Barb Iranocypris (ARKive), and the Kermanshah Loach Sasanidus (Species New to Science). Other endemic freshwater fish include the Southern Spined Loach Cobitis linea (FishBase), the Zagros Pupfish Aphanius vladykovi (FishBase), the Arak Tooth-carp Aphanius arakensis (Species ID), Alburnoides qanati (Wikispecies), Carasobarbus sublimus (Species ID), the Kermanshah Loach Sasanidus (Species New to Science), Turcinoemacheilus bahaii (FishBase), the Blind Loach Nemacheilus (or Paracobitis) smithi (SpringerLink), a hillstream catfish Glyptothorax silviae (FishBase), and a snowtrout Schizocypris altidorsalis (Freshwater Fishes of Iran).
Butterflies found only in Iran include the Iranian Festoon Allancastria louristana (ToL), Lesse's Greenish Black Tip Euchloe (or Elphinstonia) lessei (euroleps.ch), and the Elbursian Marbled White Melanargia meda (TrekNature). Endemic longhorned beetles include Mesoprionus persicus (Cerambycidae), Pogonarthron minutum (Cerambycidae), Xylotrechus ilamensis (Cerambycidae), and Asias chodjaii (Cerambycidae). Other endemic insects include the ground beetles Carabus kusnetzovi (Carabidae of the World) and Laemostenus deconincki (Carabidae of the World) and the ants Aphaenogaster iranica (AntWiki) and Anochetus evansi (AntWiki).
Other endemic invertebrates include a freshwater snail Kaskakia khorrasanensis
a land snail Likharevia
the scorpions Iranobuthus
(p. 13 of Euscorpius
pdf file) and Hottentotta
and a jumping spider Iranattus
of the World). A family of mites, the Achaemenothrombiidae
pdf file), is so far known only from Iran.
Iran has about 1400 endemic species of vascular plants including several fritillaries: Fritillaria olivieri (AGS), Fritillaria chlororhabdota (EECRG), and Fritillaria atrolineata (AGS). Endemic genera include Zerdana (p. 3 of MOBOT pdf file), Azilia (p. 3 of Univ. Tehran pdf file), Hymenocephalus (JSTOR), Straussiella (BGBM), Zhumeria (Medplant.ir), Oreophysa (JSTOR), and Kalakia (BGBM). Other endemic species include Crocus gilanicus (Crocus Pages), Dionysia mozaffarianii (dionysia4u.com), Allium shelkovnikovii (AGS), Salicornia iranica (p. 6 of pakbs.org pdf file), Euphorbia acanthodes (Univ. Tehran pdf file), Iris meda (SIGNA), Nepeta natanzensis (p. 16 of SID pdf file), Cousinia fragillima (Flora of Iran), and a bee orchid Ophrys kojurensis (SOF).
Iran forms part of two biodiversity hotspots: the Caucasus (CEPF) and the Irano-Anatolian (CEPF). Important terrestrial ecoregions for endemic species include the Zagros Mountains Forest Steppe (EoE) and the Elburz Range Forest Steppe (EoE). Important freshwater ecoregions include the Upper Tigris and Euphrates (FEOW), the Baluchistan (FEOW), and the Caspian Sea (FEOW).