Italy include the Corsican Hare (ARKive),
the Sardinian Long-eared Bat (ARKive),
the Apennine Shrew (iucn.it)
the Udine Shrew (Life
and the Calabria Pine Vole (IUCN Red
List). The Abruzzi Chamois (flickr)
is sometimes considered a full species.
Endemic reptiles include the Aeolian Wall Lizard (ARKive), the Sicilian Wall Lizard (EFHC), the Italian Aesculapian Snake (EFHC), and the recently described Sicilian Pond Turtle Emys trinacris (TrekNature).
The Northern Spectacled Salamander (ARKive) and Southern Spectacled Salamander (EFHC) belong to a genus restricted to Italy. The Sardinian Cave Salamander (ARKive) is also sometimes placed in its own genus. Other endemic salamanders include the Imperial Cave Salamander (ARKive), the Monte Albo Cave Salamander (AmphibiaWeb), the Sardinian Brook Newt (ARKive), and the Italian Newt (Caudata Culture). Other endemic amphibians include the Italian Stream Frog (ARKive), the Appenine Yellow-bellied Toad (ARKive), and the recently described Sicilian Green Toad (AmphibiaWeb).
Freshwater fish found exclusively in Italy include the Bergatino Loach Sabanejewia larvata (Ittiofauna), Cobitis zanandreai (Ittiofauna), the Italian Barbel Barbus tyberinus (FishBase), the Italian Bleak Alburnus albidus (ARKive), the Vairone Telestes muticellus (Ittiofauna), the Brook Chub Leuciscus (or Squalius) lucumonis (ARKive), the Arno Goby Padogobius nigricans (ARKive), the Carpione del Garda Salmo carpio (Ittiofauna), the Carpione del Fibreno Salmo fibreni (Ittiofauna), a recently described pike Esox cisalpinus (p. 13 of Lulu pdf file), and the Timavo Sculpin Cottus scaturigo (ARKive).
Butterflies known solely from Italy include the Italian Festoon (leps.it), the Piedmont Anomalous Blue (Matt Rowling), the Italian Marble White (leps.it), the Sardinian Meadow Brown (Matt Rowling), and the Elban Heath (leps.it). Other endemic insects include the European Owl Moth (NHM-London), an ant Myrmica siciliana (AntWiki), a cuckoo wasp Chrysis paglianoi (Chrysis.net), the Italian Goldenring Dragonfly (ARKive), Galvagni's Ground Mantis (TSTP), a flower chafer Gnorimus decempunctatus (Natura Mediterraneo), a longhorned beetle Isotomus barbarae (Cerambycidae), a ground beetle Carabus olympiae (NHM- London), a flat bark beetle Cucujus tulliae (Species-ID), a weevil Leiosoma colonnellii (WBA), a katydid Leptophyes calabra (Orthoptera of Europe), and a grasshopper Ochrilidia sicula (Torre Salsa). A beetle Crowsoniella relicta is the sole member of an endemic family, the Crowsoniellidae (zin.ru).
Endemic snails include Xerosecta giustii (ARKive), Helix mazzullii (Wikipedia), Tacheocampylaea tacheoides (ARKive), Sardopaladilhia plagigeyerica (Natura Mediterraneo), Tyrrheniberus sardonius (ARKive), and Melanopsis etrusca (ARKive). Other endemic invertebrates include a land slug Limax aeolianus (AMI), a scorpion Euscorpius alpha (Scorpion Files), a tarantula Ischnocolus triangulifer (Birdspiders.com), a cave dwelling spider Troglohyphantes pluto (AGSP), a jumping spider Aelurillus lopadusae (Salticidae of the World), a cave dwelling shrimp Typhlocaris salentina (Ittiofauna), and an amphipod crustacean Ilvanella inexpectata (G.L. Pesce). Endemic invertebrate families include a marine nemertean worm Tyrrheniellidae (eol), a moss animal Benedeniporidae (BHL), and an amphipod crustacean Metaingolfiellidae (p. 11 of Udine Cultura pdf file).
Vascular plant species exclusive to Italy include the Sicilian Fir Abies nebrodensis (ARKive), the Italian Bellflower Campanula isophylla (flickr), Iris marsica (flickr), a false oat Trisetum bertolonii (Valle del Metatauro), a lungwort Pulmonaria vallarsae (Trentino Seed Bank), Moltkia suffruticosa (it.wikipedia), the Nuragica Columbine Aquilegia nuragica (ARKive), an orchid Ophrys promontorii (iucn.it), a primrose Primula palinuri (ARKive),a burnet Sanguisorba dodecandra (ARKive), Euphorbia gibelliana (it.wikipedia), a hare's ear Bupleurum dianthifolium (ARKive), a campion Silene elisabethae (Trentino Seed Bank), Armeria helodes (ARKive), Saxifraga tombeanensis (IUCN Red List), Allium insubricum (Acta Plantarum), and a daisy Bellium crassifolium (flickr). Endemic plant genera include Petagnaea (it.wikipedia), Lereschia (Flora Italiana), Xerolekia (Acta Plantarium), Rhizobotrya (flickr), and Siculosciadium (BioOne) (Acta Plantarum). A recent checklist of endemic plant taxa can be found at (Phytotaxa).
Portions of Italy are included in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot (CEPF). Important terrestrial ecoregions include the South Appenine Mixed Montane Forests (EoE), the Appenine Deciduous Montane Forests (EoE), the Tyrrhenian-Adriatic Sclerophyllous and Mixed Forests (EoE), and the Italian Sclerophyllous and Semi-deciduous Forests (EoE). Italy also has two of the world's most important caves (Grotta dell'Arena and Buso della Rana) for biodiversity (caves.org pdf file). The Checklist of the Species of the Italian Fauna (FaunaItalia) includes 4777 endemic animal species.