Malawi has the world's richest freshwater fish fauna with many species
restricted to the portion of the lake in Malawi. Endemic
include the Fire Blue Protomelas
the Super VC-10 Placidochromis milomo
the Sulfurhead Aulonocara Aulonocara
maylandi (ARKive), Copadichromis
the Chisumulu Pearl Labidochromis flavigulis (ARKive),
Maylandia mbenjii (MalawiCichlids.com),
Lavender Mbuna Iodotropheus
Saulos's Mbuna Pseudotropheus
Fish endemic to other portions of Malawi include a killifish Nothobranchius wattersi
a yellowfish Labeobarbus
Silver Barb Barbus
Reptiles found only in Malawi include the Mlanje Mountain Chameleon Nadzikambia mlanjensis (Google Books), Chapman's Pygmy Chameleon (Mongabay), Mitchell's Flat Lizard Platysaurus mitchelli (eol), the Nyika Girdled Lizard (Reptile Database), and several skinks: the Mulanje Skink Trachylepis mlanjensis (BHL), the Nyika Three-striped Skink Trachylepis hildae (BHL), and the Nyika Serpentiform Skink Eumecia johnstoni (fig. 1 at BHL). The King Dwarf Gecko Lygodactylus rex (eol) is now known solely from Mount Mulanje with the recent split of geckos from Mozambique as a new species (Zootaxa pdf file).
Endemic amphibians include Johnston's River Frog Amietia johnstoni (EDGE), Broadley's Ridged Frog Ptychadena broadleyi (IUCN), and Friedemann's Long Reed Frog Hyperolius friedemanni (ResearchGate).
The Yellow-throated Apalis Apalis flavigularis
is an endemic bird.
Mammals known solely from Malawi include Ansell's Epauletted Fruit Bat Epomophorus anselli (IUCN), the Nyika Burrowing Shrew Myosorex gnoskei (Field Museum pdf file), and Johnston’s African Dormouse Graphiurus johnstoni (IUCN). The Kalwe Galago (Dwarf Galagos) is a possible undescribed species in the genus Galagoides.
Butterflies restricted to Malawi include Cooksonia aliciae (Namizimu), Charaxes martini (BOLD), Euphaedra murphyi (metafro), and Cymothoe zombana (BOLD). Other endemic insects include the Mulanje Damselfly Oreocnemis phoenix (All Odonata), a leafhopper Xerophytavorus furcillatus (Sciency Thoughts), an ant Camponotus lamborni (AntWiki), a stalk-eyed fly Diopsis malawiensis (p. 9 of Zool. Med. Leiden pdf file), a vivid metallic ground beetle Chlaenius ruthmuellerae (Carabidae of the World), several caddisflies of the genus Chimarra (Zootaxa pdf file), and four katydids: Enyaliopsis ilala (OSF), Enyaliopsis mulanje (OSF), Eulioptera bilobata (OSF), and Dioncomena bulla (OSF).
Other endemic invertebrates include a baboon spider Ceratogyrus hillyardi
long-legs spider Ninetis
Central), another spider Umwani
anymphos (figs. D-F at BHL),
a scorpion Pandinus
pantinii (p. 51 of Onychium
pdf file), the freshwater crabs Potamonautes
a land snail Gulella
and a freshwater snail Melanoides
Among about 50 endemic vascular plant species are several orchids including Aerangis distincta (IOPSE), Habenaria livingstonia (JSTOR), Polystachya minima (IOPSE), and Polystachya johnstonii (IOPSE). Mount Mulanje is especially rich in endemic plants including the Mulanje Cedar Widdringtonia whytei (ARKive), Impatiens shirensis (flickr), Euphorbia mlanjeana (Cactofili), Alloeochaete oreogena (JSTOR), Cleome densifolia (Cape Town Botanist), Gladiolus bellus (RHS pdf file), Geranium mlanjense (JSTOR), Helichrysum whyteanum (JSTOR), and Streptocarpus nimbicola (Cape Town Botanist). Plants unique to the Nyika Plateau include Osteospermum nyikensis (JSTOR), Phyllanthus nyikae (JSTOR), Vernonia kawoziensis (JSTOR), and Cyphia nyikensis (JSTOR).
Parts of Malawi are included in the South Malawi Montane Forest-grassland Mosaic (WWF) and the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot (CEPF). Lake Malawi (FEOW) likely has over 800 fish species found nowhere else and is also rich in endemic invertebrates. Many of the endemic plant species can be found in the Malawi Plant Red Data List (see National Red Lists 3 MB pdf file).