from Malaysia include the Mountain
the Malayan Water Shrew (ARKive),
Four-striped Ground Squirrel (Planet'
Mammiferes), the Kinabalu Squirrel (flickr),
Pencil-tailed Mouse (flickr),
the Ranee Mouse (ARKive),
the False Serotine Bat (ARKive),
the Bronze Tube-nosed Bat (ARKive),
and two endemic genera: the Red-bellied
Sculptor Squirrel (p. 76 of BBEC
24 MB pdf file) and the Danum Tree Rat Pithecheirops (Internet
Archive). The Malayan Tiger (Cat SG)
is an endemic subspecies.
Birds unique to Malaysia include the Mountain Peacock-pheasant (ARKive), Campbell's Hill Partridge (OBC), the Sabah Partridge (IBC), the Dulit Partridge (HBW), the White-fronted Falconet (OBC), the Friendly Bush Warbler (IBC), the Malaysian Whistling Thrush (IBC), Everett's Thrush (Borneo Bird Images), and a recently discovered undescribed flowerpecker from Sabah (OBC pdf file). Also sometimes considered distinct species are the Black-headed Pitta Pitta ussheri (Borneo Bird Images) and the Bornean Swiftlet Collocalia dodgei (Borneo Bird Images).
The two spinejaw snakes of the endemic genus Xenophidion (Google Books) have been proposed as the sole members of the family Xenophiidae. Other endemic reptiles include the Kinabalu Crested Dragon (flickr), a blind skink Dibamus tiomanensis (BHL), the Jelawang Bent-toed Gecko (Species New to Science), the Kinabalu Forest Skink (Reptile Database), the Kinabalu Giant Blind Snake (Species New to Science), the Pahang Water Snake (amphibia.my), the Tioman Reed Snake (ARKive), and the Cameron Highlands Pit Viper (Ecology Asia). Endemic genera include the Kinabalu Brown Pit Viper (Reptile Database), the Mountain Dwarf Snake (flickr), the Kinabalu Crested Dragon (flickr), and the recently described Malayodracon (Species New to Science).
Amphibians found nowhere else include the Luidan Stream Toad (ARKive), the Api Dwarf Toad (Frogs of Borneo), the Montane Horned Frog (Frogs of Borneo), the Rough-sided Dwarf Litter Frog (Frogs of Borneo), the Kinabalu Large-Eyed Litter Frog (Frogs of Borneo), the Kajang Slender Litter Frog (BHL), the Lowland Grainy Frog (ARKive), the Minute Narrow-mouthed Frog (amphibia.my), the Treehole Frog (Ecology Asia), the Tanah Rata Wart Frog (ARKive), the Western Torrent Frog (Frogs of Borneo), the Kerangas Bush Frog (Frogs of Borneo), the very small Microhyla nepenthicola (Mongabay), and a caecilian Ichthyophis pauli (Species New to Science). The Spotted Asian Tree Toad Sabahphrynus maculatus (Species New to Science) and Tung's Narrow-mouthed Frog Gastrophrynoides immaculatus (amphibia.my) represent endemic genera.
Freshwater fish known solely from Malaysia include numerous bettas such as Betta persephone (ARKive), Betta pulchra (Seriously Fish), and Betta ibanorum (Seriously Fish). Endemic catfish include Encheloclarias curtisoma (PlanetCatfish), Hemibagrus furcatus (PlanetCatfish), Akysis alfredi (FLMNH), and Wallago maculatus (FishBase). Other endemic fish include the Borneo River Shark Glyphis fowlerae (Defra), a licorice gourami Parosphromenus harveyi (Seriously Fish), the Kuching Barb (FishBase), a goby Stiphodon aureorostrum (Raffles Museum pdf file), a cave-dwelling loach Speonectes tiomanensis (p. 119 of Raffles Museum pdf file), and the Striped Redeye Puffer (Species New to Science).
Spectacular insects restricted to Malaysia include the world's longest insect, Chan's Megastick (Mongabay) and the world's largest leaf insect Phyllium giganteum (Phasmids in Cyberspace). Other endemic insects include a damselfly Elattoneura mauros (Odonata of Pen. Malaysia), the moths Antheraea ulrichbroschi (Saturniidae of Malaysia) and Trabala rotundapex (Moths of Borneo), the butterflies Zeuxidia mesilauensis (IGoTerra) and Graphium procles (eol), a grasshopper Willemsella bicolor (NCBI), the Jungle Nymph Heteropteryx dilatata (flickr), a lacewing Semachrysa jade (Mongabay), a herdsmen ant Dolichoderus maschwitzi (eol), and a stag beetle Cyclommatus chewi (flickr).
invertebrates include a tarantula Coremiocnemis
jumping spider Sparbambus
of the World), a
trapdoor spider Liphistius kanthan (IUCN),
a freshwater crab Johora
the Sarawak Land Crab Lepidothelphusa
and the land snails Opisthostoma
and Everettia jucundior
A parasitic mite Hystrichonyssus
turneri (p. 212 of Univ.
pdf file) currently known only from Malaysia, but collected from
non-endemic species, is the sole member of the family Hystrichonyssidae.
Orchids unique to Malaysia include Dimorphorchis rossii (IOPSE), Dendrobium serena-alexianum (Kew), Paphiopedilum rothschildianum (slipperorchids.info), Bulbophyllum cameronense (IOPSE), and Thrixspermum erythrolomum (p. 5 of WWF 3 MB pdf file). Other endemic plants include Rafflesia tuan-mudae (Parasitic Plant Connection), the Joey on a Stick (ARKive), Monophyllaea sarangica (Ch'ien C. Lee), the Parasol Palm (PACSOA), a conifer Dacrydium gibbsiae (ARKive), a pitcher plant Nepenthes rajah (ARKive), Hopea auriculata (FPM), the Kinabalu Kauri (ARKive), Amorphophallus julaihii (IAS), Begonia tigrina (FPM), and Orchidantha longiflora (flickr). Endemic plant genera include Orchadocarpa (Rimba Ilmu), Spelaeanthus (Genera of Gesneriaceae), Senyumia (Genera of Gesneriaceae), Holttumochloa (flickr), Kostermansia (FPM), Aleisanthia (Ongzi), Nabaluia (Malesian Orchid Genera), Borneodendron (Rogier van Vugt), Exorhopala (flickr), and Maingaya (Rimba Ilmu).
Malaysia is included in the Sundaland biodiversity hotspot (CEPF). Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Kinabalu Montane Alpine Meadows (EoE) and the Peninsular Malaysian Montane Rain Forests (EoE). Important freshwater ecoregions for endemic species include the Malay Peninsula Eastern Slope (FEOW) and the Northeastern Borneo (FEOW).