from Malaysia include the Mountain
the Malayan Water Shrew (EDGE),
the Kinabalu Squirrel (flickr),
the Four-striped Ground Squirrel (Planet'
Mammiferes), the Large
Pencil-tailed Mouse (flickr),
the False Serotine Bat (ARKive),
the Krau Woolly Bat (MBEA),
the Bronze Tube-nosed Bat (ARKive),
and two endemic genera: the Red-bellied
Sculptor Squirrel (p. 76 of BBEC
24 MB pdf file) and the Danum Tree Rat Pithecheirops (p.
37 of BBEC
2 MB pdf file).
Birds unique to Malaysia include the Mountain Peacock-pheasant (ARKive), Campbell's Hill Partridge (OBC), the Dulit Partridge (Borneo Bird Images), the White-fronted Falconet (OBC), the Friendly Bush Warbler (IBC), the Malayan Whistling Thrush (BirdLife Int'l), Everett's Thrush (Borneo Bird Images), and a recently discovered undescribed flowerpecker from Sabah (OBC pdf file). Also sometimes considered distinct species are the Black-headed Pitta Pitta ussheri (Borneo Bird Images) and the Bornean Swiftlet Collocalia dodgei (Borneo Bird Images).
The two spinejaw snakes of the endemic genus Xenophidion (SysTax) have been proposed as the sole members of the family Xenophiidae. Other endemic reptiles include Robinson’s Forest Dragon (Reptile Database), a blind skink Dibamus tiomanensis (Asiatic Herpetological Research pdf file), the Niah Cave Gecko (Lizards of Borneo), the Sabah Slender Skink (Ecology Asia), Leonard’s Pipe Snake (Reptile Database), Tweedie’s Mountain Reed Snake (Reptile Database), the Tioman Reed Snake (ARKive), the Pahang Water Snake (amphibia.my), the Fairy Pit Viper (amphibia.my), and the Cameron Highlands Pit Viper (Ecology Asia).
Amphibians found nowhere else include the Luidan Stream Toad (ARKive), the Api Dwarf Toad (Frogs of Borneo), the Montane Horned Frog (Frogs of Borneo), the Rough-sided Dwarf Litter Frog (Frogs of Borneo), the Kinabalu Large-Eyed Litter Frog (Frogs of Borneo), the Kajang Slender Litter Frog (amphibia.my), the Lowland Grainy Frog (ARKive), the Minute Narrow-mouthed Frog (amphibia.my), the Treehole Frog (Ecology Asia), the Tanah Rata Wart Frog (ARKive), the Western Torrent Frog (Frogs of Borneo), the Kerangas Bush Frog (Frogs of Borneo), and the very small Microhyla nepenthicola (Mongabay). The Spotted Asian Tree Toad Sabahphrynus (or Pedostibes) maculatus (Species New to Science) and Tung's Narrow-mouthed Frog Gastrophrynoides immaculatus (amphibia.my) represent endemic genera.
Freshwater fish known solely from Malaysia include numerous bettas such as Betta persephone (ARKive), Betta pulchra (IBC), Betta tussyae (IBC), Betta brownorum (NHM-London), and Betta ibanorum (IBC). Endemic catfish include Encheloclarias curtisoma (PlanetCatfish), Hemibagrus furcatus (PlanetCatfish), Akysis alfredi (FLMNH), and Wallago maculatus (FishBase). Other endemic fish include the Borneo River Shark Glyphis fowlerae (Defra), a licorice gourami Parosphromenus harveyi (IGL), the Kuching Barb (jjphoto.dk), a goby Stiphodon aureorostrum (Raffles Museum pdf file), a cave-dwelling loach Speonectes tiomanensis (p. 119 of Raffles pdf file), and the Striped Redeye Puffer (Puffer Forum).
Spectacular insects restricted to Malaysia include the world's longest insect, Chin's Megastick (Mongabay), the largest leaf insect Phyllium giganteum (Phasmids in Cyberspace), and the Emperor Cicada Pomponia imperatoria (agr.gc.ca), also the world's largest. Other endemic invertebrates include a damselfly Elattoneura mauros (Odonata of Pen. Malaysia), the moths Antheraea ulrichbroschi (Saturniidae of Malaysia) and Eupterote muluana (, a swallowtail Graphium procles (FANSEAB), the Jungle Nymph Heteropteryx dilatata (flickr),a lacewing Semachrysa jade (Mongabay), a herdsmen ant Dolichoderus maschwitzi (SysTax), a stag beetle Cyclommatus chewi (Coleop-Terra), a jumping spider Sparbambus gombakensis (Salticidae of the World), a tarantula Coremiocnemis hoggi (TarantulaCanada), a trapdoor spider Liphistius malayanus (ARKive), a freshwater crab Johora gapensis (ARKive), the Sarawak Land Crab Lepidothelphusa cognetti (ARKive), and the land snails Opisthostoma vermiculum (IISE) and Everettia jucundior (Bornean Terrestrial Molluscs).
Orchids unique to Malaysia include Dimorphorchis rossii (IOPSE), Dendrobium serena-alexianum (Kew), Paphiopedilum rothschildianum (slipperorchids.info), Bulbophyllum cameronense (IOPSE), and Thrixspermum erythrolomum (p. 5 of WWF 3 MB pdf file). Other endemic plants include Rafflesia tuan-mudae (Parasitic Plant Connection), the Joey on a Stick (ARKive), Monophyllaea sarangica (Ch'ien C. Lee), the Parasol Palm (PACSOA), a conifer Dacrydium gibbsiae (ARKive), a pitcher plant Nepenthes rajah (ARKive), Hopea auriculata (FPM), the Kinabalu Kauri (ARKive), Amorphophallus julaihii (Int'l Aroid Soc.), Begonia tigrina (FPM), and Orchidantha longiflora (flickr). Endemic plant genera include Orchadocarpa (Rimba Ilmu), Spelaeanthus (Genera of Gesneriaceae), Senyumia (Genera of Gesneriaceae), Holttumochloa (Wild Asia), Kostermansia (FPM), Aleisanthia (Ongzi), Nabaluia (Malesian Orchid Genera), Borneodendron (Euphorbiaceae of Malesia), Exorhopala (flickr), and Maingaya (Rimba Ilmu).
Malaysia is included in the Sundaland biodiversity hotspot (CI). Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Kinabalu Montane Alpine Meadows (EoE) and the Peninsular Malaysian Montane Rain Forests (EoE). Important freshwater ecoregions for endemic species include the Malay Peninsula Eastern Slope (FEOW) and the Northeastern Borneo (FEOW).