Mauritius include several species that have been rescued from the very
edge of extinction including the Mauritius Kestrel (ARKive),
the Mauritius Pink Pigeon (Durrell),
and the Mauritius Echo Parakeet (WPT).
Other endemic birds include the Mauritius Olive
Mauritius Cuckoo-shrike (ARKive),
Mauritius Black Bulbul (ARKive),
the Mauritius Fody (ARKive),
and the Rodrigues Fody (ARKive).
The Mauritius Paradise
and the Mauritius Gray White-eye (flickr)
have recently been considered distinct from closely related species in
extinct birds include such spectacular species as the Mauritius Blue
the Rodrigues Starling (Wikipedia),
and the Rodrigues Solitaire (Wikipedia)
with the last two often considered to be the sole members of an endemic
family, the Raphidae.
Mammals found nowhere else include the Rodrigues Flying Fox (ARKive) and the Mauritian Flying Fox (ARKive). A free-tailed bat Mormopterus acetabulosus (Wikimedia Commons) is apparently a breeding endemic.
The Round Island Keel-scaled Boa (ARKive) is the sole surviving member of the endemic family Bolyeridae, which until about 1975 also included the now extinct Round Island Burrowing Boa (AFC). Other endemic reptiles include the Lesser Night Gecko (Mauritius Reptiles), the Round Island Day Gecko (ARKive), the Blue-tailed Day Gecko and the Lowland Forest Day Gecko (both at Mauritius Reptiles), the Ornate Day Gecko (eol), and the Round Island Skink (ARKive). Bojer’s Skink (Mauritius Reptiles) represents an endemic genus.
Marine fish known solely from Mauritius include the wrasses Cirrhilabrus sanguineus (FishBase) and Paracheilinus piscilineatus (eol), a deepwater dragonet Callionymus regani (BHL), a damselfish Pomacentrus rodriguesensis (aqua), the Fody Dottyback Chlidichthys foudioides (p. 48 of Univ. Toronto pdf file), Randall's Dottyback Chlidichthys randalli (eol), Smith's Dottyback Chlidichthys smithae (eol), and a cardinalfish Neamia notula (WA Museum pdf file). Awaous (or Chonophorus) pallidus (FishBase) is an endemic freshwater goby.
Butterflies restricted to Mauritius include Papilio manlius (ARKive), Neptis frobenia (flickr), Euploea euphon (flickr), Amauris phoedon (Lepiforum), and the extinct Cyclyrius mandersi (p. 17 of LRF 4 MB pdf file) and Libythea cinyras (Ausgerottete Arten). Other endemic insects include a dragonfly Thalassothemis marchali (ARKive), a cicada Distantada thomaseti (Insects on Stamps), a longhorned beetle Batrachorhina griseiventris (Smithsonian), a weevil Cratopus striga (Beetles of Mauritius), a stick insect Mauritiophasma motalai (SOS Patrimoine en Péril), a cricket Metioche superbus (Le Mauricien), a katydid Rodriguesiophisis spinifera (Le Mauricien), and the ants Discothyrea berlita (AntWiki) and Tapinoma fragile (AntWiki).
the 45 surviving endemic terrestrial snails are Gonidomus pagodus (Femorale),
and Harmogenanina implicata and Tropidophora eugeniae (both
Brosi). Other endemic
invertebrates include a tarantula Mascaraneus
the Serpent Island Centipede Scolopendra abnormis
and a murex Chicoreus
Among over 300 vascular plant species found only in Mauritius are many endemic genera including Ramosmania (Kew), Tetrataxis (GardenBreizh), Hornea (Claude Barrère), Cylindrocline (Kew), Roussea (Kew), Tectiphiala (ARKive), Astiria (Google Books), Nesocodon (Rikke's Plants), and Mathurina (Rodrigues via Mauritius). Other endemic plants include the national flower Trochetia boutoniana (flickr), the Black Ebony Diospyros tessellaria (ARKive), Colea colei (ARKive), Psiadia cataractae (ARKive), Dracaena concinna (ARKive), Polyscias mauritiana (ARKive), Xylopia lamarckii (ARKive), Hyphorbe lagenicaulis (ARKive), Pandanus heterocarpus (fr.wikipedia), Elaeocarpus bojeri (GTC), Hibiscus genevii (NTBG), Cylindrocline commersonii (ARKive), Pittosporum balfourii (Wikimedia Commons), Dombeya acutangula (ARKive), Coffea macrocarpa (ARKive), Gastonia mauritiana (ARKive), Gouania leguatii (MWF), and Latania verschaffeltii (ARKive).
Mauritius is included in the Mascarene Forests ecoregion (WWF), is part of the Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot (CEPF), and is included in the Southern Mascarene Islands coral reef hotspot (Columbia Univ. pdf file). An overview of the natural history of Mauritius is at (ResearchGate pdf file). Several of the recently extinct endemic species of Mauritius are highlighted at (Pangolin Extinct Species).