Mexico include the Vaquita (ARKive),
Yucatan Brown Brocket (CONABIO),
Pygmy Spotted Skunk (CONABIO), the Pygmy Raccoon (ARKive),
Fish-eating Bat (ARKive),
Small-eared Shrew (EDGE),the
Mexican Agouti (ARKive),
the Mexican Prairie Dog (ARKive),
the Tropical Ground Squirrel (flickr),
Chiapan Climbing Rat (Google Books),
the San Jose Brush
Tehuantepec Jackrabbit (ARKive),
as a breeding species, the Guadalupe Fur Seal (ARKive).
representing endemic genera include the Volcano Rabbit (EDGE),
the Gray Mouse Opossum (CONABIO),
Buller’s Pocket Gopher (Mammalian
Species pdf file), Thomas' Giant Deer Mouse (ARKive),
the Magdalena Rat (CONABIO), and the Banana Bat (ARKive).
Birds found nowhere else include the Blue-capped Hummingbird (ARKive), the Short-crested Coquette (HBW), the Citreoline Trogon (Mangoverde), the Bearded Wood-partridge (Neotropical Birds), the Rufous-bellied Chachalaca (Neotropical Birds), the Elegant Quail (Neotropical Birds), the Thick-billed Parrot (ARKive), the Mexican Parrotlet (Neotropical Birds), the Socorro Dove (Neotropical Birds), the Tufted Jay (flickr), the Red Warbler (Neotropical Birds), the Crimson-collared Grosbeak (flickr), Nava's Wren (ARKive), the Red-breasted Chat (Neotropical Birds), the Orange-breasted Bunting (Neotropical Birds), and several possibly extinct species: the Imperial Woodpecker (Wikipedia), the Cozumel Thrasher (Robert Curry), and the Guadalupe Storm-petrel (Wikipedia).
Mexico has an exceptional endemic reptile fauna (second only to Australia) including an endemic family, the Bipedidae, that includes the Baja California Worm Lizard (California Herps). Other reptiles restricted to Mexico include the Oaxacan Dwarf Boa (Reptile Database), the Santa Catalina Rattlesnake (SDNHM), Dunn’s Hog-nosed Viper (CONABIO), the Mexican Horned Pitviper (ARKive), the Balsas Coral Snake (Herpetology of Mexico), the Giant Hook-nosed Snake (CONABIO), the Ridge-headed Snake (Herpetology of Mexico), the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana (ARKive), the Puebla Knob-scaled Lizard (CONABIO), the Mexican Blind Lizard (Reptile Database), the Bromeliad Arboreal Alligator Lizard (ARKive), the San Esteban Island Chuckwalla (ARKive), the Coahuilan Box Turtle (DFC), and the Bolson Tortoise (nytts.org).
Amphibians found nowhere else include the Mexican Shovel-headed Tree Frog (Herpetology of Mexico), the Mexican Leaf Frog (AmphibiaWeb), the Dwarf Mexican Tree Frog (CONABIO), the Oaxacan Yellow Tree Frog (ARKive), Schultze's Stream Frog (CONABIO), the Axolotl (EDGE), the Bigfoot Splayfoot Salamander (EDGE), the Cerro Baul Dwarf Bromeliad Salamander (AmphibiaWeb), Townsend’s Dwarf Salamander (EDGE), the Golden Minute Salamander (EDGE), and the Oaxacan Caecilian (CONABIO).
The Chiapas Catfish (ScienceDaily) is the sole member of the endemic family Lacantuniidae. Other endemic freshwater fish include the Blind Swamp Eel (CaveBiology.com), the Mexican Blind Brotula (ARKive), the Sarabia Cichlid (FishBase), the Cuatro Ciénegas Cichlid (CONABIO), the Twoline Pupfish (DFC), the Tequila Splitfin (ARKive), the Golden Skiffia (ARKive), the Montezuma Swordtail (FishBase), the Olmec Priapella (Freshwater Fishes of Mexico), and the Mexican Golden Trout (St. Louis Univ.).
marine fish include the Gulf
Plume Tube Blenny (STRI),
the Blue-spotted Jawfish (STRI), the Gecko Goby (STRI),
Clarion Damselfish (STRI),
the Cortez Round Stingray (ARKive),
the Yucatan Pipefish (STRI),
and the Lucas Barracuda (STRI).
Insects known only from Mexico include a swallowtail Baronia brevicornis (Butterflies of America), the Social White Eucheira socialis (Social Caterpillars), Minerva's Owl Butterfly (Butterflies of America), a moon moth Actias truncatipennis (Kirby Wolfe), a damselfly Paraphlebia zoe (ARKive), a jewel scarab Chrysina macropus (CONABIO), an elephant beetle Megasoma nogueirai (New World Scarab Beetles), an ant Acanthostichus quirozi (AntWiki), and an endemic grasshopper family, the Xyronotidae (p. 13 of WBA pdf file).
rich cave fauna includes a shrimp Creaseria
an endemic scorpion family, the Typhlochactidae (AMNH
and an endemic millipede family, the Typhlobolellidae (BHL).
Endemic marine molluscs include
the Black Murex (Eddie
a chiton Lepidozona
and a cone shell Conus
Biodiversity). Other endemic invertebrates include
the Mexican Rustleg Tarantula (ARKive),
a crayfish Cambarellus
a mussel Friersonia
iridella (MUSSELp), a freshwater snail Mexipyrgus
an endemic semi-slug family Echinichidae (Bram's
snailblog) (WLT), and an endemic centipede family Eriphantidae (Internet
Among over 11,000 vascular plant species unique to Mexico is an endemic family, the Setchellanthaceae (IREKANI). Another endemic family, the Pterostemonaceae (Kew), is also sometimes recognized. Cacti found only in Mexico include the Old Man Cactus (CONABIO), the Chende (Desert Tropicals), the Artichoke Cactus (ARKive), Acharagma (ARKive), and Mammillaria guelzowiana (ARKive). Other endemic plants include the Boojum Tree (ASDM), Hinton's Oak (GTC), Polianthes (Pacific Bulb Soc.), Magnolia dealbata (ARKive), the Baja Elephant Tree (ASDM), the Guadalupe Cypress (ARKive), Iostephane (IREKANI), Pachyphytum (Globetrotters), Eucodonia (gesneriads.ca), Xylonagra (eol), Ainea (IREKANI), and several orchids: Mexipedium (SlipperOrchids.info), Alamania (CONABIO), Hintonella (flickr), Euchile (CONABIO pdf file), and Artorima (IOPSE).
Mexico includes part of the Western Caribbean coral reef hotspot (Columbia Univ. pdf file) and portions of three biodiversity hotspots: the Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands (CEPF), the Mesoamerica (CEPF), and the California Floristic Region (CEPF). Important regions of Mexico for endemic species include the Gulf of California (WWF), the Mexican Highland Lakes (WWF), the Panuco freshwater ecoregion (FEOW), the Sierra Madre del Sur Pine-oak Forests (EoE), the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt Pine-oak Forests (EoE), the Islas Revillagigedo Dry Forests (EoE), and the Cuatro Ciénegas (DFC).