Caledonia has an
exceptionally distinctive flora with over 2400 endemic species and
several endemic families: Amborellaceae (Bill
Laidlaw), Oncothecaceae (Endemia),
and Phellinaceae (Endemia).
and Strasburgeria robusta (Endemia)
are also sometimes considered to be the sole members of endemic
and the only parasitic gymnosperm Parasitaxus
genera include Eriaxis
Coilochilus (Endemia), and Clematepistephium (Endemia).
Endemic palm genera include Pritchardiopsis
Cyphophoenix (PACSOA), Kentiopsis
(PACSOA). Other endemic plants
include the Panie Kauri (ARKive), Virotia angustifolia
Xanthostemon aurantiacus (Endemia), Myodocarpus pinnatus
and Stromatopteris moniliformis
Remarkable birds found nowhere else include an endemic family, the Kagu (EDGE), and the tool-using New Caledonian Crow (Univ. Auckland). Other endemic birds include the Cloven-feathered Dove (Endemia), the New Caledonian Imperial Pigeon (Endemia), the Uvea Parakeet (ARKive), the New Caledonian Lorikeet (HBW), the White-bellied Goshawk (ARKive), the New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar (EDGE), the New Caledonian Cuckooshrike (ARKive), the Crow Honeyeater (EDGE), the New Caledonian Friarbird (Endemia), the Striated Starling (HBW), the Yellow-bellied Robin (Endemia), the New Caledonian Myzomela (HBW), the New Caledonian Thicketbird (HBW), the New Caledonian Whistler (HBW), and the Red-throated Parrotfinch (Endemia).
Endemic mammals include the Ornate Flying Fox (Endemia), the New Caledonian Flying Fox (Endemia), the New Caledonia Blossom Bat (ARKive), the New Caledonia Wattled Bat (Endemia), the Loyalty Bentwing Bat (Endemia), and the New Caledonian Long-eared Bat (Endemia).
Representing genera of geckos unique to New Caledonia are Bauer's Chameleon Gecko (Reptile Database), the Forest Bavayia (flickr), the recently described Dierogekko (Endemia) and Oedodera (Endemia), and the world's largest living species, the New Caledonian Giant Gecko (Endemia). Endemic skink genera include Graciliscincus (Endemia), Lacertoides (Endemia), Marmorosphax (Endemia), Lioscincus (ARKive), Nannoscincus (ARKive), Phoboscincus (Endemia), Sigaloseps (Endemia), Simiscincus (Endemia), and the recently described Kanakysaurus (Endemia) and Celatiscincus (Endemia). Endemic snakes include the New Caledonian Sea Krait (Endemia) and the Loyalty Islands Blind Snake (BHL).
Freshwater fish restricted to New Caledonia include a recently described endemic genus of silverside Bleheratherina pierucciae (Endemia), Galaxias neocaledonicus (Endemia), a loach goby Rhyacichthys guilberti (Endemia), and several gobies: Protogobius attiti (Endemia), Schismatogobius fuligimentus (Endemia), Stenogobius yateiensis (Endemia), and Sicyopterus sarasini (FishBase). Endemic marine fish include the New Caledonia Catshark (eol), the Blacktailed Spurdog (FishBase), a cardinalfish Jaydia catalai (FishBase), a dottyback Ogilbyina salvati (eol), the Glowtail Pipefish Dunckerocampus chapmani (FishWise), the New Caledonian Thorny Seahorse (FishBase), the New Caledonian Striped Triplefin (BOLD), and an endemic genus of snake eel Rhinophichthus penicillatus (FishBase).
Butterflies known solely from New Caledonia include Papilio montrouzieri (Endemia), Graphium gelon (Endemia), Polyura gamma (Endemia), Paratisiphone lyrnessa (Endemia), and Austroypthima petersi (Endemia). Other endemic insects include a sphinx moth Compsulyx cochereaui (Endemia), a longhorned beetle Buprestomorpha montrouzieri (Endemia), a ground beetle Cyphocoleus flavipes (Endemia), a cicada Kanakia typica (Endemia), a cricket Pixibinthus sonicus (PLOS ONE), the Coconut Grasshopper (Endemia), the stick insects Gigantophasma bicolor (Phasmida) and Cnipsus rhachis (Endemia), a damselfly Caledopteryx maculata (Endemia), a leafcutting bee Eutricharaea australis (Endemia), and an ant Lioponera cohici (AntWiki).
New Caledonia is a territory of France and forms its own biodiversity hotspot (CEPF). The marine fauna of New Caledonia is considered one of the world's most important marine centers of endemism (Science).