else include the Coiba Island Howler Monkey (flickr),
the Pygmy Three-toed Sloth (EDGE),
the Panama Slender Opossum (IUCN Red List),
the Coiban Agouti (flickr),
Rothschild’s Porcupine (flickr),
Kalko's Round-eared Bat Lophostoma
Elisabeth’s Yellow-eared Bat Vampyressa elisabethae (AMNH pdf file), and Peter’s Spiny Pocket Mouse (Mammalian
Species pdf file). A brocket deer from San Jose Island Mazama permira (Google
Books) is sometimes considered a full species distinct from
the more widespread Gray Brocket Mazama
gouazoubira. The Chiriqui Olingo (eol) has been recently
determined to be a synonym of the widely ranging Northern Olingo (ZooKeys).
Birds known solely from Panama include the Azuero Parakeet (WPT), the Glow-throated Hummingbird (ARKive), the Brown-backed Dove (BirdLife Int'l), the Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker (IBC), the Beautiful Treerunner (ARKive), the Yellow-green Finch (Neotropical Birds), the Pirre Bush Tanager (GlobalTwitcher), and the Yellow-green Tyrannulet (Pierre Bannon). The Escudo Hummingbird Amazilia handleyi (Xenornis) is sometimes considered distinct from the Rufous-tailed Hummingbird Amazilia tzacatl (IBC) and the Coiba Spinetail Cranioleuca dissita (Xenornis) has at times been considered distinct from the Rusty-backed Spinetail Cranioleuca vulpina (IBC).
Among reptiles exclusive to Panama are the anoles Anolis pseudopachypus (Mongabay) and Anolis kunayalae (Phyllomedusa pdf file), a galliwasp Diploglossus montisilvestris (p. 2 of AMNH pdf file), the Panamanian Spined Tegu Echinosaura panamensis (STRI), a skink Sphenomorphus rarus (p. 3 of AMNH pdf file), the Panamanian Coral Snake Micrurus stewarti (flickr), a snail sucker Sibon noalamina (IISE), Dunn's Water Snake Hydromorphus dunni (BHL), a snail-eater Dipsas nicholsi (STRI), a ground snake Atractus darienensis (p. 17 of AMNH pdf file), and an earth snake Geophis tectus (p. 8 of Senckenberg pdf file).
Amphibians unique to Panama include the Panamanian Golden Frog (Project Golden Frog), the Limosa Stubfoot Toad (ARKive), the Polkadot Poison Frog (ARKive), the Bocas Poison Frog (Dendrobates.org), Vicente’s Poison Frog (Herps of Panama), a tree frog Scinax altae (fig. 3 at Internet Archive), Rabb’s Fringe-limbed Treefrog (ARKive), the Yellow Dyer Rain Frog (Mongabay), the Leopard-bellied Scrub Toad (flickr), the Tabasara Robber Frog (STRI), Pristimantis museosus (STRI), Myers' Surinam Toad (EDGE), the Maritime Worm Salamander (Burica Press), the Camp Sasardi Salamander (AmphibiaWeb), and the Cocle Caecilian (AmphibiaWeb).
Freshwater fish restricted to Panama include the characins Brycon petrosus (FishBase) and Gephyrocharax atracaudatus (FishBase), a catfish Ancistrus chagresi (PlanetCatfish), Brachyrhaphis hessfeldi (VDA), a killifish Cynodonichthys brunneus (It Rains Fish), Neoheterandria tridentiger (FishBase), a knifefish Gymnotus panamensis (FLMNH), and the cichlids Archocentrus (or Cryptoheros) panamensis (Cichlid Room Companion) and Vieja (or Cichlasoma) tuyrensis (Cichlid Room Companion). Endemic marine fish include the Snaggle-toothed Snake-eel (STRI), the Chame Anchovy (eol), the Bifid Clingfish (STRI), the Plain Goby (STRI), and the Fake Roundray (STRI). Endemic genera include the Slender Tube-blenny (STRI) and the Goose-billed Croaker (STRI).
Insects found only in Panama include the butterflies Memphis kingi (Butterflies of America) and Theope kingi (Butterflies of America), an unusual bagworm moth Perisceptis carnivora (Wildlife Extra), a jewel scarab beetle Chrysina magnistriata (New World Scarab Beetles), an elegant canopy beetle Agra lavernae (eol), a weevil Cactophagus dragoni (INBio), a longhorned beetle Mallodon vermiculatum (eol), an ant Acromyrmex insinuator (AntWiki), and a wasp Foxita cambrai (EurekAlert). Endemic arachnids include the jumping spiders Psecas euoplus (Salticidae of the World) and Mabellina prescotti (Salticidae of the World), the tarantulas Actinopus robustus (STRI) and Psalmopoeus pulcher (flickr), and a scorpion Centruroides panamensis (Scorpion Files).
Endemic invertebrate families include a millipede Dorsoporidae (BHL) and an isopod crustacean Colypuridae (BioNames).
Endemic marine invertebrates include a
coral Siderastrea glynni
a peppermint shrimp Lysmata hochi (STRI), a snapping shrimp Leslibetaeus
a nudibranch Cuthona
Slug Forum), a cone snail Gladioconus cuna (Eddie
a mitre snail Mitra
and a nutmeg snail Cancellaria
Among over 1200 endemic vascular plant species are many orchids including Sobralia callosa (Sobralia Pages), Oerstedella pseudoschumanniana (IOPSE), and Maxillaria scalariformis (IOPSE). Other endemic plants include a cycad Zamia pseudoparasitica (Cycad Pages), a palm Calyptrogyne costatifrons (p. 1 of Field Museum pdf file), the Membrillo Gustavia fosteri (Field Museum), Inga spiralis (ARKive), Heliconia magnifica (Field Museum), Codonanthe luteola (Gesneriad Reference Web), Eschweilera amplexifolia (ARKive), Vismia jefensis (Smithsonian), the bromeliads Guzmania macropoda (Smithsonian) and Aechmea allenii (FCBS), Cavendishia megabracteata (Field Museum), Coccoloba manzinellensis (Tropicos), Costus vinosus (IUCN Red List), Philodendron annulatum (IAS), and Anthurium pseudospectabile (IAS). Endemic genera include Desmotes (Burica Press), Horichia (Woodstream Orchids), Pohlidium (Tropicos), Calderonella (Tropicos), Sanblasia (Smithsonian), Anthopteropsis (Tropicos), Votschia (JSTOR), and Panamanthus (Tropicos).
Panama is part of the Mesoamerica (CEPF) and Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena (CEPF) biodiversity hotspots and forms a portion of the Western Caribbean coral reef hotspot (Columbia Univ. pdf file). Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Talamancan Montane Forests (EoE) and the Eastern Panamanian Montane Forests (EoE). The Rio Tuira (FEOW) and Chiriqui (FEOW) are important freshwater ecoregions.