Papua New Guinea
spectacular bird fauna includes a dozen species of birds of paradise
found nowhere else including the Raggiana Bird-of-paradise (ARKive),
Ribbon-tailed Astrapia (ARKive),
and the Blue
Bird-of-paradise (ARKive). Other endemic birds
include the Fire-maned Bowerbird (ARKive),
the Superb Pitta (ARKive),
the Brown-headed Paradise Kingfisher (flickr),
the Blue-eyed Cockatoo (WPT),
the Purple-bellied Lory (WPT),
the New Britain Hawk-Owl (HBW),
Starry Owlet-nightjar (ARKive),
Manus Fantail (HBW), and the recently
described Odedi (Markus
Mammals unique to PNG include the Huon Tree Kangaroo (ARKive), the Tenkile (TCA), the Lowland Tree Kangaroo (PapuaWeb), the Papuan Forest Wallaby (Planet' Mammiferes), Bulmer’s Fruit Bat (EDGE), the Bismarck Flying Fox (ARKive), the New Guinea Big-eared Bat (The Conversation), the Bronze Quoll (UNSW), the Painted Ringtail (AMNH), the Woodlark Cuscus (EDGE), Tate’s Triok (IUCN), the Fly River Water Rat (flickr), and the Giant Bandicoot (AMNH 4 MB pdf file).
Reptiles known only from PNG include the Mount Rossel Forest Snake (Bishop Museum), the Bismarck Sharp-nosed Blindsnake (Bishop Museum), the Milne Bay Ground Snake (Bishop Museum), the East Papuan Keelback (Bishop Museum), a monitor Varanus semotus (Species New to Science), the Papua Forest Dragon (Bishop Museum), the Admiralty Spiny Skink (Naturalis pdf file), the Bumblebee Gecko (Mongabay), the Slender Litter Skink (Bishop Museum), Pritchard's Snake-necked Turtle (eol), and the Variegated Giant Softshell Turtle Pelochelys signifera (WCT). Representing endemic genera are the Bismarck Ringed Python Bothrochilus (Reptile Database), the Bougainville Coral Snake Parapistocalamus (Britannica), and the Fojia Skink Fojia (Bishop Museum).
A rich variety of endemic frogs includes the Torricelli Mountain Frog (Bishop Museum), Siegfried's Rainforest Frog (ARKive), the New Britain Land Frog (ARKive), Slater's Callulops Frog (Ecology Asia), the Michael Rainforest Frog (ARKive), the Milne Bay Mehely Frog (Bishop Museum), the Alotau Land Frog (Bishop Museum), a cross frog Oreophryne ezra (BBC), the Morobe Big-eyed Tree Frog (Bishop Museum), the Rossell Tree Frog (Bishop Museum), and the Pomugu Wrinkled Ground Frog (ARKive). Endemic genera include Barygenys (Bishop Museum), Genyophryne (Bishop Museum), Aphantophryne (AMNH pdf file), and the world's smallest frogs Paedophryne (ScienceDaily) (IISE) .
Freshwater fish restricted to PNG include the Popondetta Blue-eye (rainbowfish), the Lake Kutubu Rainbowfish (ARKive), the Lake Wanam Rainbowfish (ARKive), the Oktedi Rainbowfish (rainbowfish), and a blind sleeper goby Oxyeleotris caeca (WA Museum). Endemic genera include the Kiunga Blue-eye (ARKive), the Peacock Gudgeon (FishBase), and a worm goby Gymnoamblyopus (FishBase). Endemic marine fish include the Sailback Houndshark (eol), Colin's Damsel (eol), Collette’s Blenny (eol), and the Tiny New Guinea Longtail Dragonet (eol).
Queen Alexandra’s Birdwing (ARKive) is the world's largest butterfly. Other endemic butterflies include Papilio weymeri (Papilionidae of the World), Graphium browni (Papilionidae of the World), Euploea doretta (Yale). Stemmocrypta antennata (Google Books) is the sole member of an endemic family of true bug. Other endemic arthropods include a longhorned beetle Rosenbergia straussi (Living Jewels), a jewel beetle Calodema ribbei (eol), the weevils Trigonopterus helios (Species ID) and Eupholus quintaenia (Living Jewels), a flower beetle Ischiopsopha jamesi (Wikipedia), a stalk-eyed fly Achias rothschildi (eol), a damselfly Argiolestes annulipes (p. 60 of Bishop Museum pdf file), and a cricket Gnominthus baitabagus (OSF).
endemic arthropods include a jumping spider Tabuina varirata (Jumping
and a crayfish Cherax
Endemic land snails include the
Manus Green Tree Snail (Mongabay),
Endemic nudibranchs include Durvilledoris
Slug Forum) and Aegires petalis (Sea
Orchids exclusive to PNG include Dendrobium engae (IOPSE), the night-flowering Bulbophyllum nocturnum (Kew), and the endemic genus Ophioglossella (Malesian Orchid Genera). Endemic palms include Calyptrocalyx polyphyllus (PACSOA), Cyrtostachys bakeri (Kew), Ponapea hentyi (PACSOA), Hydriastele longispatha (PACSOA), and the endemic genus Brassiophoenix (PACSOA). Other endemic plants include the world's tallest banana Musa ingens (Plant Files), Rhododendron christianae (flickr), the Klinki Pine (ARKive), Hypserpa calcicola (p. 114 of CI pdf file), Xanthomyrtus angustifolia (PNGplants), Helicia subcordata (PNGplants), a cycad Cycas schumanniana (Cycad Pages), Acronychia richards-beehlerii (p. 23 of CI pdf file), and the endemic genera Lamiodendron (p. 6 of FODBG pdf file) and Kairoa (Flora Malesiana).
Papua New Guinea includes portions of the East Melanesian Islands biodiversity hotspot (CEPF). Other areas in PNG important for endemic species include the following terrestrial ecoregions: the Central Range Montane Rain Forests (EoE), the Huon Peninsula Montane Rain Forests (EoE), the Southeastern Papuan Rain Forests (EoE), the Louisiade Archipelago Rain Forests (EoE), and the Trobriand Islands Rain Forests (EoE).