The Manumea or Tooth-billed Pigeon (samoanbirds.com) (EDGE ) represents an endemic genus. Birds found nowhere else include the Samoan Flycatcher (HBW), the Samoan Fantail (HBW), the Samoan Whistler (HBW), the Samoan Triller (HBW), the Samoan White-eye (HBW), and the Mao (ARKive). The Samoan Moorhen (Naturalis) has long been thought extinct, but possible recent sightings suggest that it may still survive. The Flat-billed Kingfisher Todiramphus recurvirostris (flickr) (ZMA) and the Red-headed Parrotfinch Erythrura cyaneovirens (flickr) are considered to represent distinct endemic species by some authorities. Recently proposed endemic species (ResearchGate) include the Samoan Wood Pigeon Columba castaneiceps (flickr), the Samoan Robin Petroica pusilla (flickr), and the Samoan Thrush Turdus samoensis (Google Books).
A recently described mammal is the flying fox Pteropus allenorum (p. 6 of AMNH
Digital Library 8 MB pdf file) which is known from a single
specimen collected in 1856 on Upolu and is presumed extinct.
Land snails unique to Samoa include Samoana stevensoniana (Samoan Land Snails), Eua expansa (Samoan Land Snails), Succinea putamen (Samoan Land Snails), Lamprocystis perpolita (Samoan Land Snails), and Pleuropoma plicatilis (Samoan Land Snails). Endemic arachnids include a jumping spider Rarahu nitida (Salticidae of the World) and the world's smallest spider Patu marplesi (rsnz.natlib.govt.nz) with a minimum length of 0.43 mm.
Endemic insects include the butterflies Hypolimnas errabunda and Phalanta exulans (both on p. 2 of CEPF pdf file), a hawk moth Gnathothlibus samoaensis (p. 6 of Australian Museum pdf file), a crambid moth Glaucocharis dialitha (p. 120 of SPREP 5 MB pdf file), a katydid Phisis parapallida (OSF), the ants Adelomyrmex samoanus (AntWiki) and Vollenhovia pacifica (AntWiki), a plant bug Pilophorus samoanus (Discover Life), a burrowing bug Peltoscytus samoanus (Opole Univ. pdf file), and a ground beetle Bryanites graeffii (ZSE).
Plant species exclusive to Samoa include the palms Clinostigma samoense
paulcoxii (p. 4 of Agroforestry
Net pdf file), and an endemic genus, Solfia samoensis (Palm
Specialist Group). Other endemic plants include the orchids Corybas betchei (p. 174 of CI
pdf file) and
197 of CI
(p. 95 of CI
pdf file), Psychotria bristolii
140 of CI
151 of CI
(p. 47 of botany.hawaii.edu
5 MB pdf file), Hoya
and Rapanea longipes (JSTOR).
Samoa is part of the Polynesia-Micronesia biodiversity hotspot (CEPF) and, along with American Samoa, comprises the Samoan Tropical Moist Forests ecoregion (EoE). For more details on the plants and animals of Samoa see the rapid biodiversity assessment for upland Savai'i (SPREP 5 MB pdf file).