from Sri Lanka include the Purple-faced Langur (ARKive),
the Toque Macaque (ARKive),
the Red Slender Loris (EDGE),
the Golden Palm Civet (ARKive),
the Sri Lankan Spotted Mouse Deer (ZooChat),
Mouse Deer (p.
5 of Jetwing
Layard's Palm Squirrel (ARKive),
Mayor's Mouse (ARKive), the Sri Lankan
Long-tailed Tree Mouse (flickr),
and the Sinharaja Shrew (Planet'
Mammiferes). Endemic genera
Pearson's Long-clawed Shrew (Planet'
Mammiferes) and the Ohiya
Birds restricted to Sri Lanka include the Chestnut-backed Owlet (Ceylon Bird Club), the Serendib Scops Owl (ARKive), the Sri Lankan Wood-pigeon (HBW), the Sri Lanka Hanging-parrot (Endemic Bird of SL), the Layard's Parakeet (Ceylon Bird Club), the Sri Lankan Grey Hornbill (HBW), the Crimson-backed Flameback (flickr), the Yellow-fronted Barbet (Ceylon Bird Club), the Sri Lankan Myna (OBC), the Sri Lanka Whistling-thrush (Ceylon Bird Club), the Yellow-eared Bulbul (ARKive), Legge’s Flowerpecker (Corbet's View), the Sri Lankan Woodshrike (Rainbirder), the Sri Lankan Magpie (ARKive), the Sri Lankan Spurfowl (Ceylon Bird Club), and the national bird - the Sri Lankan Junglefowl (ARKive). Endemic genera include the Red-faced Malkoha (ARKive) and the Sri Lankan Bush-warbler (HBW).
Representatives of reptile genera unique to Sri Lanka include the Leaf-nosed Lizard (ARKive), the Pygmy Lizard (ARKive), the Hump-nosed Lizard (ARKive), the Smooth Lanka Skink (ARKive), the Large Shieldtail (Reptiles of Sri Lanka), the Sri Lankan Wolf Snake (ARKive), Boie’s Roughside (ARKive), and the Sri Lankan Blossom Krait (ARKive). Other endemic reptiles include Alwis’s Day Gecko (Reptiles of Sri Lanka), the Pied Blind Snake (ARKive), Barnes' Cat Snake (ARKive), the Sri Lankan Pipe Snake (Reptiles of Sri Lanka), the Sri Lankan Green Pit Viper (ARKive), the Highland Hump-nosed Viper (ARKive), and the Sri Lankan Krait (Reptiles of Sri Lanka).
Amphibians exclusive to Sri Lanka include the Common Yellow-banded Caecilian (ARKive), Noellert's Toad (ARKive), the Sri Lankan Paddy Field Frog (ARKive), the Gray-brown Pug-snouted Frog (AmphibiaWeb), Karunaratne’s Narrow-mouthed Frog (EDGE), and dozens of species of endemic shrub-frogs including Philautus ocularis (ARKive) and Pseudophilautus sirilwijesundarai (Mongabay). Endemic genera include Kelaart’s Dwarf Toad (ARKive), Kirthisinghe's Rock Frog (EDGE), Taruga (AmphibiaWeb), and the Corrugated Water Frog (ARKive).
Freshwater fish found solely in Sri Lanka include the Cherry Barb (eol), the Asoka Barb (FishBase), the Barred Danio (ARKive), the Pearly Rasbora (FishBase), the Ornate Paradise Fish (LankaLibrary), the Ceylonese Combtail (AquaWorld), Werner’s Killifish (FishBase), the Banded Mountain Loach (ARKive), Jonklaas's Loach (Loaches Online), and a recently described catfish Mystus ankutta (PlanetCatfish) and barb Puntius reval (Sunday Observer). Endemic marine fish include the Sri Lankan Dottyback (reeflex), a parrotfish Chlorurus rhakoura (eol), the Manyscaled Flounder (eol), and a recently described threefin blenny Helcogramma serendip (p. 23 of Bioline Int'l pdf file).
Butterflies found nowhere else include the Sri Lankan Birdwing (SL Butterflies), the Sri Lankan Rose (ARKive), the Sri Lankan Tree Nymph (ARKive), the Sri Lankan Tiger (ARKive), the Blue Oakleaf (flickr), and the Sri Lankan Hedge Blue (flickr). Other endemic arthropods include the Brook Hooktail (All Odonata), the Sri Lankan Forktail (Biodiversity of SL), the Sri Lankan Relict Ant (ARKive) (WHT), a katydid Temnophylloides astridula (flickr), a longhorned beetle Sybra ceylonensis (eol), a planthopper Truncatomeria viridistigma (Gallicissa), the Ornate Tiger Spider (Tarantupedia), a jumping spider Onomastus jamestaylori (Species New to Science), a freshwater crab Ceylonthelphusa kandambyi (ARKive), the Sri Lankan Tree-climbing Crab Perbrinckia scansor (Gallicissa), and a genus of freshwater shrimp Lancaris (AkvaForum.no).
Among over 100 endemic species of land snails are Indoartemon layardianus (Rufford), Beddomea albizonata (flickr), Eutomopeas layardi (NHM - London), Acavus superba and Oligospira poleii (both at slendemics.net), Ratnadvipia karui (eol), and Mirus stalix (p. 6 of Raffles Museum pdf file). Endemic marine invertebrates include Kline’s Conch (Eddie Hardy) and a volute Lyria cloveriana (jaxshells.org).
More than 900 vascular plant species are confined to Sri Lanka including a palm Areca concinna (PACSOA), Exacum trinervium (flickr), the Sri Lankan Mango (ARKive), Gordonia ceylanica (Corbet's View), Osbeckia octandra (Ruth Ripley), Impatiens repens (Strange Wonderful Things), Chirita moonii (Gesneriad Reference Web), Cryptocoryne thwaitesii (Crypts Pages), Nepenthes distillatoria (Dr. Joachim Nerz), Rodomyrtus tomentosa (Corbet's View), Dipterocarpus zeylanicus (ARKive), Myristica ceylanica (ARKive), Shorea stipularis (ARKive), and the Wesak Orchid (IOPSE). Endemic genera include a dipterocarp Stemonoporus (flickr), an orchid Adrorhizon (IOPSE), Schumacheria (Ruth Ripley), a palm Loxococcus (ARKive), Schizostigma (Biodiversity of SL), a bamboo Davidsea (SL Butterflies), Podadenia (fig. c on p.427 of WHT pdf file), Cyphostigma (Smithsonian), Hortonia (Univ. Peradineya pdf file), and Championia (Genera of Gesneriaceae).
Sri Lanka is included in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot (CEPF) and the Northern Indian Ocean coral reef hotspot (Columbia Univ. pdf file). Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Sri Lanka Montane Rain Forests (EoE) and the Sri Lanka Lowland Rain Forests (EoE). An overview of the island is provided by "Biodiversity Conservation in Sri Lanka" (CBD pdf file) and "The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka" (CEA pdf file).