else include the Formosan Rock Macaque (ARKive),
the Formosan Serow (Ultimate
Ungulate), the Formosan Lesser
Horseshoe Bat (Bats
in China), the Formosan
Yellow-throated Bat and the Formosan
Long-eared Bat (both at NMNS),
the Formosan Tube-nosed Bat (Bats
in China), the
Zoo), the Kano Mole (BiotaTaiwanica), the Formosan
and the Taiwan Long-tailed Shrew (BiotaTaiwanica).
recognized as a full species are the Taiwan High
Mountain Least Weasel Mustela
Chi), the Formosan Sika Deer Cervus
and the Formosan Wild Boar Sus
Birds unique to Taiwan include the Mikado Pheasant (ARKive), Swinhoe’s Pheasant (ARKive), the Taiwan Partridge (ARKive), the Taiwan Bamboo Partridge (Birding in Taiwan), the Taiwan Blue Magpie (HBW), the Collared Bush-robin (Birding in Taiwan), the Flamecrest (Birding in Taiwan), the Taiwan Bulbul (ARKive), the White-whiskered Laughingthrush (Birding in Taiwan), the Yellow Tit (Birding in Taiwan), the White-eared Sibia (Birding in Taiwan), the Taiwan Liocichla (HBW), the Taiwan Yuhina (Birding in Taiwan), and the Taiwan Whistling-thrush (OBC). Other endemic birds sometimes recognized as distinct species include the Taiwan Fulvetta, Taiwan Scimitar Babbler, and Taiwan Hwamei (all at Birding Nerd), the Taiwan Rosefinch (Birding@Taiwan), and the Taiwan Barbet (flickr).
Reptiles exclusive to Taiwan include the Taiwan Mountain Pit Viper (Snakes of Taiwan), the Taiwan Coral Snake (Snakes of Taiwan), the Black Odd-scaled Snake (Snakes of Taiwan), the Taiwan Keelback (Snakes of Taiwan), the Atayal Slug-eating Snake (Species New to Science), Maki's Keelback (Snakes of Taiwan), Kikuchi’s Gecko (flickr), the Lanyu Scaly-toed Gecko (flickr), the Hsuehshan Grass Lizard (flickr), the Koshun Grass Lizard (TaiEOL), the Formosan Smooth Skink (flickr), the Taiwan Alpine Skink (flickr), and the Short-legged Japalura (nature.hc.edu.tw).
Amphibians restricted to Taiwan include Moltrecht’s Green Tree Frog (NTU), the recently described tree frogs Kurixalus berylliniris and Kurixalus wangi (both at Species New to Science), the Brown Tree Frog (Natural Scenery of Taiwan), Brauer's Tree Frog (Frog Home), Swinhoe's Frog (flickr), the Long-legged Brown Frog (ARKive), Sauter’s Brown Frog (ARKive), the Central Formosan Toad (flickr), Stejneger’s Narrow-mouthed Toad (Frog Home), Sonan’s Salamander (flickr), and the Taiwan Salamander (ARKive).
Freshwater fishes living solely in Taiwan include the Formosan River Loach (Loaches Online), the Formosan Torrent Catfish (NTU), the Taiwan Bagrid Catfish (flickr), a freshwater goby Rhinogobius lanyuensis (Fish Database of Taiwan), the Taiwan Ku Fish (NTU), and a minnow Opsariichthys pachycephalus (FishBase). Endemic genera of minnows include Pararasbora (NTU) and Candidia (FishBase).
Endemic marine fish
include the Taiwan Saddled Carpetshark (Fish
Database of Taiwan), a hagfish Eptatretus
a squirrelfish Myripristis
Database of Taiwan),
Shen’s Basslet Pleactranthias
Studies pdf file), and a righteye
Database of Taiwan). The Taiwanese Worm Eel (Zootaxa
pdf file) is an endemic genus.
Insects confined to Taiwan include the Highland Red-bellied Swallowtail (flickr), the butterflies Euthalia formosana (flickr) and Ypthima formosana (flickr), a silk moth Loepa mirandula (flickr), the moths Anaplectoides inouei (eol) and Dooabia alia (TaiEOL), the dragonflies Sinogomphus formosanus (flickr) and Sympetrum nantouensis (Dragonflies of Taiwan), a damselfly Euphaea formosa (flickr), the Lanyu Giant Katydid (flickr), a stick insect Phasmotaenia lanyuhensis (TaiBNET), an ant Anochetus taiwaniensis (AntWiki), a lanternfly Pyrops watanabei (flickr), the Brilliant Jewel Beetle (TEIA), the Formosan Stag Beetle (flickr), the Nanhutashan Ground Beetle (flickr), a tiger beetle Cosmodela batesi (flickr), the Rainbow Click Beetle (flickr), a longhorned beetle Paraglenea swinhoei (flickr), a leaf beetle Gallerucida sauteri (aliaw1958.blogspot), and a weevil Pachyrrhynchus tobafolius (eol).
Endemic land snails include Japonia
Malacofauna Database), Cyclophorus
invertebrates include a
terrestrial crab Geothelphusa
Scenery of Taiwan), a river crab
a tarantula Yamia
a lynx spider Peucetis
and a coral Pseudosiderastrea
Times). A family of copepod crustaceans, the Strepidae (ResearchGate pdf file), is so far known only from Taiwan.
Among about 1071 vascular plant species founly only in Taiwan are the Taiwan Spruce (ARKive), the Taiwan Cypress (ARKive), the Taiwan Fir (ARKive), a conifer Amentotaxus formosana (ocac.gov.tw), the Nakai Podocarp (ARKive), the extinct in the wild Kanehira Azalea (flickr), the Yushan Rhododendron (Natural Scenery of Taiwan), the Taiwan Lily (flickr), the Taiwan Paulownia (Natural Scenery of Taiwan), Magnolia kachirachirai (ARKive), a palm Pinanga tashiroi (ARKive), Camellia hengchunensis (flickr), Gentiana arisanensis (Natural Scenery of Taiwan), Dianthus pygmaeus (flickr), the Formosa Firethorn (ARKive), Ophiorrhiza michelloides (flickr), Cycas taitungensis (Cycad Pages), and the orchids Cypripedium segawai (ARKive), Epigeneium nakaharaei (flickr), and Calanthe arisanensis (flickr). Endemic genera include the Taiwan Fragrant Orchid (flickr), Sinopanax (flickr), and Kudoacanthus (Flora of Taiwan).
Taiwan is part of the Southern Japan, Taiwan and Southern China coral reef hotspot(Columbia Univ. pdf file). The island is divided into two terrestrial ecoregions: the South Taiwan Monsoon Rain Forests (EoE) and the Taiwan Subtropical Evergreen Forests (EoE). An important freshwater ecoregion is the Western Taiwan (FEOW). For lists of endemic species see (TaiBNET).