found nowhere else include the Rose-crowned Conure (WPT),
the Rufous-cheeked Tanager (IBC),
the Rusty-flanked Crake (IBC),
the Handsome Fruiteater (flickr),
Urich's Tyrannulet (BirdLife
Int'l), the Tachira Antpitta (BirdLife
Int'l), the Paria Whitestart (IBC),
the Merida Flowerpiercer (IBC),
the Green-tailed Emerald (Surfbirds),
the White-throated Barbtail (flickr),
the Orinoco Softtail (ARKive),
the Gray-headed Warbler (IBC),
and the recently described Carrizal Seedeater Amaurospiza carrizalensis
Endemic genera include the Scissor-tailed
and the Violet-chested Hummingbird (IBC).
Mammals unique to Venezuela include the Merida Brocket Deer (Planet' Mammiferes), Tyler's Mouse Opossum (Planet' Mammiferes), the Merida Small-eared Shrew (Mammalian Species pdf file), Fernandez's Sword-nosed Bat (Ciencia Guayana), the Guaira Spiny-rat (ASM), Pittier's Crab-eating Rat (Planet' Mammiferes), the Fiery Squirrel (IUCN Red List), the Orinoco Agouti (IUCN Red List), the Venezuelan Lowland Rabbit (IUCN Red List), and the recently described Orinoco Four-eyed Opossum Philander deltae (UAB) and Overlook Spiny Pocket Mouse Heteromys catopterius (Wildlife Extra). The Eastern Mountain Coati Nasuella meridensis (NYSM pdf file) has recently been recognized as a full species.
Reptiles restricted to Venezuela include the Uracoan Rattlesnake (World of Snakes), the Venezuelan Lancehead (CalPhotos), the Venezuela Forest Pit Viper (Serpientes de Venezuela), an indigo snake Drymarchon caudomaculatus (Wolfgang Wüster), a false coral snake Erythrolamprus pseudocorallus (Serpientes de Venezuela), the Sucre Gecko Gonatodes seigliei (Reptile Database), Anadia steyeri (CalPhotos), a whiptail Cnemidophorus nigricolor (Reptile Database), and the Zulia Toad-headed Turtle (Turtles of the World). Endemic lizard genera include Adercosaurus (p. 50 of AMNH Digital Library pdf file) and Riolama (p. 94 of Smithsonian pdf file).
Amphibians exclusive to Venezuela include the Scarlet Frog (CI), the Rancho Grande Harlequin Frog (ARKive), the Yellow Harlequin Frog (Fundación AndígenA), the Demonic Poison Frog (ARKive), the Merida Tree Frog (ARKive), the Aragua Glass Frog (ARKive), the Giant Marsupial Frog (ARKive), the world's worst smelling frog - the Venezuelan Skunk Frog Aromobates nocturnus (AMNH Digital Library), and a salamander Bolitoglossa spongai (ARKive). Endemic genera include a toad Metaphryniscus (ARKive), the Neblina Frog Adelastes (AMNH), a glass frog Celsiella (AmphibiaWeb), a robber frog Paramophrynella (AmphibiaWeb), and the Merida Rocket Frog Nephelobates (ARKive).
Freshwater fish known only from Venezuela include the Maracaibo River Stingray (FishBase), a piranha Serrasalmus neveriensis (OPEFE), the Diamond Tetra (FishBase), a bloodfin tetra Aphyocharax yekwanae (CI), Rivulus gransabanae (FishBase), Apareiodon orinocensis (Auburn), and the cichlids Geophagus abalios (Cichlid Room Companion) and Apistogramma guttata (Cichlid Room Companion). Endemic genera include Oscar’s Longfin (SAA), the Saberfin Killie (It Rains Fish), the Swordtail Longfin (It Rains Fish), a knifefish Racenisia (Auburn), and a number of catfishes: Dentectus (ACSI), Pseudolithoxus (PlanetCatfish), Neblinichthys (Auburn), Acanthobunocephalus (eol), and Orinocodoras (ScotCat).
The Comb-clawed Cascade Beetle Meru phylissae (Smithsonian National Zoo) is the sole member of the endemic family Meruidae. Other endemic beetles include a longhorned beetle Taygayba venezuelensis (Amazilia) and an endemic stag beetle genus Sphaenognathus (New World Scarab Beetles). Endemic butterflies include Redonda empetrus (mucubaji.com), Actinote alberti (Butterflies of America), and Memphis salinasi (Butterflies of America). Other endemic insects include a hawkmoth Xylophanes fernandezi (Sphingidae of the Americas), a dragonfly Sympetrum paramo (Slater Museum), a cicada Aragualna plenalinea (flickr), and an ant Pheidole pariana (Harvard). Endemic spiders include the Pinkfoot Goliath Tarantula (petbugs.com), the Venezuelan Red Stripe Tarantula (sklipkani.cz), the Amazon Blue Bloom Tarantula (GiantSpiders.com), and the Greenbottle Blue Tarantula (Phong's Tarantulas!). Endemic molluscs include a freshwater mussel Tamsiella tamsiana (Mussels of Venezuela) and an apple snail Pomacea falconensis (es.wikipedia).
The nearly 3000 vascular plant species occurring only in Venezuela (CJB pdf file) include a pitcher plant Heliamphora elongata (ICPS), a palm Asterogyne spicata (ARKive), the orchids Cattleya lueddemanniana (IOPSE) and Masdevallia tovarensis (IOPSE), the Caracas Walnut Juglans venezuelensis (Agroecología), Tapeinostemon breweri (Gentian Research Network), Coespeletia timotensis (flickr), and Saxofridericia grandis (MOBOT). Endemic genera include the bromeliads Ayensua (FCBS) and Steyerbromelia (BSI), Chimantaea (UAB), Duidaea (MOBOT), the Neotropical blueberries Mycerinus (NYBG) and Tepuia (NYBG), Anaectocalyx (PlantSystematics.org), Mallophyton (Melastomataceae of the World), Kunhardtia (MOBOT), Aphanocarpus (Foto Audy), Carramboa (Espletia Project), Ruilopezia (Espletia Project), an orchid Guanchezia (Projeto Orchidstudium), and the possibly carnivorous orchid Aracamunia (Botanicus).
The Venezuelan Andes Montane Forests terrestrial ecoregion (EoE) forms part of the Tropical Andes biodiversity hotspot (CI). Other areas rich in endemic species include the Tepuis terrestrial ecoregion (EoE), and the Maracaibo (FEOW) and the Orinoco Llanos (FEOW) freshwater ecoregions. Illustrations and descriptions of many of Venezuela's threatened endemic animals can be found in "Libro Rojo de la Fauna Venezolana" (Provita).