species of mammals, birds, and butterflies than any other country in
world and is one of the main contenders (along with Australia and Brazil) for most species
of endemic life. Much of Indonesia is included in the
Sundaland (CEPF) and Wallacea (CEPF) biodiversity
hotspots. Less immediately
threatened, but similarly rich in endemic species, is Papua in New
Indonesia also includes most of the Sunda Islands coral reef
while the Bird's Head Peninsula of Papua is possibly the
area for marine species (Check List
pdf file). Important freshwater ecoregions include the Kapuas (FEOW),
and the Central Sulawesi Lakes (WWF).
Among two dozen species of primates found nowhere else are the Sumatran Orangutan (ARKive), the Javan Gibbon (ARKive), Kloss’s Gibbon (gibbons.de), the Sulawesi Crested Macaque (ARKive), the Simakobu (ARKive), the Javan Langur (ARKive), the Mitred Leaf Monkey (ARKive), the Javan Slow Loris (ARKive), and the Spectral Tarsier (Ecology Asia). Other endemic mammals include the Western Long-beaked Echidna (EDGE), the Dingiso (PapuaWeb), the Bear Cuscus (EDGE), the Javan Rhinoceros (ARKive), the Babirusa (ARKive), the Bawean Deer (Ultimate Ungulate), the Lowland Anoa (Ultimate Ungulate), the Sumatran Rabbit (EDGE), the Sulawesi Giant Squirrel (ARKive), the Sumatran Porcupine (Planet' Mammiferes), the Hog-nosed Rat (Guardian), and the Sulawesi Palm Civet (ARKive).
Birds found exclusively in Indonesia include many spectacular birds of paradise: Wilson’s Bird-of-Paradise (ARKive), the Western Parotia (flickr), the Red Bird-of-Paradise (ARKive), Wallace's Standardwing (ARKive), and the Arfak Astrapia (HBW). Other endemic birds include the Maleo (EDGE), Salvadori’s Pheasant (ARKive), the Javan Hawk-eagle (ARKive), the Red-and-blue Lory (ARKive), the Moluccan Cockatoo (WPT), the Snoring Rail (HBW), the Western Crowned Pigeon (ARKive), the Sumba Hornbill (OBC), the Sumatran Ground Cuckoo (EDGE), the Javan Trogon (EDGE), the Bali Myna (ARKive), the Vogelkop Bowerbird (ARKive), the Malia (Creagrus), the Wattled Smoky Honeyeater (ARKive), and the Caerulean Paradise-flycatcher (ARKive). The Yellow-flanked Whistler (Creagrus) is sometimes classified as the sole member of an endemic family, the Hylocitreidae.
Reptiles known only from Indonesia include the Komodo Dragon (ARKive), the Crested Agama Lophocalotes ludekingii (flickr), Boulenger’s Tree Agama (Reptile Database), Weber’s Sailfin Lizard (Reptilis), the Sumatra Nose-horned Lizard (Reptile Database), the color changing Kapuas Mud Snake (BBC), the Moluccan Python (flickr), the Moluccan Flying Snake Chrysopelea rhodopleuron (flickr), the Banded Pit Viper (CalPhotos), the Javan Spitting Cobra (Wikipedia), and the Sulawesi Forest Turtle (ARKive).
Endemic amphibians include the Bornean Flat-headed Frog (AmphibiaWeb), the Bleeding Toad (ARKive), the Sulawesi Toad (Ecology Asia), the Javan Horned Frog (AmphibiaWeb), the Sabang Tree Frog (AmphibiaWeb), the Korinchi Frog (flickr), the Rough-backed Frog (Frogs of Borneo), the Javan Chorus Frog (Wikipedia), the Sulawesi Flying Frog (flickr), and the Sumatran Caecilian (eol). A recently described fanged frog Limnonectes larvaepartus (ESF) is the only frog known to give birth to live tadpoles.
The fish family Telmatherinidae is found solely in Indonesia and includes the Celebes Rainbowfish (ARKive) and the Marine Sailfin Silversides (FishBase). Endemic freshwater fish include the Egg-carrying Buntingi (ARKive), a stream catfish Breitensteinia insignis (Akysidae), the Redfin Dwarf Rasbora (FishBase), the Redfin River Barb (eol), the Lake Kurumoi Rainbowfish (rainbowfish), and Betta burdigala (ARKive). Endemic marine fish include the Banggai Cardinalfish (ARKive), the Indonesian Coelacanth (ARKive), Satomi's Pygmy Seahorse (IISE), a goby Platygobiopsis akihito (eol), a flasher wrasse Paracheilinus nursalim (ARKive), Cross' Damsel (eol), and the Psychedelic Frogfish (ARKive).
Butterflies restricted to Indonesia include Wallace's Golden Birdwing (ARKive), Rothschild's Birdwing (eol), the Buru Opalescent Birdwing (Tony Nagypal), Idea blanchardii (SE Asian Butterflies), and Lohora dexamenus (SE Asian Butterflies). Other endemic insects include a stag beetle Cyclommatus elaphus (Bio-Nica), the Long-armed Chafer Beetle (Wikimedia Commons), a longhorned beetle Batocera celebiana (SE Asian Beetles), a scarab Chalcothea resplendens (coleoptera.wz.cz), a weevil Eupholus cuvieri (flickr), a damselfly Disparocypha biedermanni (All Odonata), a giant wasp Megalara garuda (EurekAlert!), and Wallace’s Giant Bee (Wikipedia).
Other endemic invertebrates include a family of freshwater
a family of moss animal Mourellinidae
a freshwater crab Nautilothelphusa
a freshwater shrimp Caridina
a coral Acropora
a cone snail Conus
Biodiversity) and the Golden-mouth Volute (Eddie
Among about 10,000 species of vascular plants found solely in Indonesia are the world's largest compound flower, the Titan Arum (Kew), the world's largest single flower Rafflesia arnoldii (Parasitic Plant Connection), a pitcher plant Nepenthes spathulata (Wikipedia), the Clove (Spice Pages), the Javanese Edelweiss (flickr), Aglaonema pictum (Int'l Aroid Soc.), and the orchids Dendrobium tobaense (Bryan Ramsay), Paphiopedilum tonsum (Paphs.net), and Phalaenopsis amboinensis (phals.net). Endemic genera include the orchids Gynoglottis (Malesian Orchid Genera) and Ceratochilus (Malesian Orchid Genera), Pentastemona (PhytoImages), the palms Dransfieldia (Kew) and Jailoloa (Species New to Science), and a fern Thysanosoria p. 1 of Kew pdf file).