has more unique species of amphibians and freshwater fish than any
other country in the world and is one of the main contenders (along
with Australia and Indonesia) for most species
of endemic life. Brazil has several distinctive regions rich in animals
found nowhere else including the Caatinga ecoregion (EoE),
the Atlantic Forest (CEPF)
biodiversity hotspots, the Abrolhos Coral Reefs (SIGEP),
and, most famously, the Amazon (WWF).
Freshwater ecoregions especially rich in endemic species
include the Tocantins - Araguaia (FEOW)
and the Northeastern Mata Atlantica (FEOW),
Primates found exclusively in Brazil include the Golden Lion Tamarin (Smithsonian National Zoo), the Northern Muriqui (ARKive), the White-whiskered Spider Monkey (ARKive), the Red-handed Howler (ARKive), Coimbra Filho's Titi (Species New to Science), the Pied Tamarin (ARKive), the Black-bearded Saki (ARKive), and the Blonde Capuchin (ARKive). Other mammals unique to Brazil include the Araguaian River Dolphin (Species New to Science), the Maned Sloth (EDGE), the Brazilian Three-banded Armadillo (ARKive), the Hoary Fox (Mammalian Species pdf file), the Atlantic Forest Long-nosed Bat (Species New to Science), the Thin-spined Porcupine (flickr), the Rock Cavy (eol), the Painted Tree Rat (ARKive), Karimi's Fat-tailed Mouse Opossum (ARKive), the White-spotted Mountain Rat (Natureza), and Santa Catarina’s Guinea Pig (EDGE).
Brazil's endemic parrots include the critically endangered Spix’s Macaw (EDGE), the Golden Conure (WPT), Lear's Macaw (ARKive), and the Blue-bellied Parrot (ARKive). Other birds found only in Brazil include Kaempfer’s Woodpecker (ARKive), the Hooded Visorbearer (Arthur Grosset's Birds), the Frilled Coquette (HBW), the Alagoas Curassow (ARKive), the White-necked Hawk (CEO), the White-collared Kite (EDGE), the Crescent-chested Puffbird (Neotropical Birds), the Banded Cotinga (HBW), the Pin-tailed Manakin (Neotropical Birds), the White-browed Antpitta (HBW), the Ferruginous Antbird (Neotropical Birds), the White-naped Jay (HBW), the Bahia Tapaculo (EDGE), the Black-legged Dacnis (HBW), the Gray-hooded Attila (Neotropical Birds), and the Seven-colored Tanager (ARKive).
Among endemic reptile genera are the fathead anoles Enyalius (CalPhotos), a gymnophthalmid lizard Psilophthalmus (Check List), a gecko Gymnodactylus (flickr), and several colubrid snakes: Tropidodryas (Biodiversidade RS), Gomesophis (Check List), and Sordellina (CalPhotos). Other reptiles unique to Brazil include the Golden Lancehead (ARKive), the Decorated Coral Snake (flickr), the Caatinga Rainbow Boa (flickr), Cropan's Tree Boa (Serpentes Brasileiras), the Yellow Tegu (Repteis Squamata do Cerrado), and the Brazilian Snake-necked Turtle (ARKive).
Brazil's exceptional amphibian fauna includes the Pumpkin Toadlet (AmphibiaWeb), the Caatinga Horned Frog (Anfíbios e Répteis do Brasil), the Fruit-eating Frog (POYi), the Splash-backed Poison Frog (CalPhotos), the Itatiaia Highland Frog (ARKive), Frostius erythrophthalmus (globo.com), Phyllomedusa oreades (Anfíbios e Répteis do Brasil), Paratelmatobius poecilogaster (AmphibiaWeb), Scythrophrys sawayae (AmphibiaWeb), a salamander Bolitoglossa paraensisa (CalPhotos), a caecilian Atretochoana eiselti (AmphibiaWeb), and a number of recently described species (amphibia.ufba.br). Some classifications include only Cycloramphus (CalPhotos) and Thoropa (AmphibiaWeb) in Cycloramphidae, resulting in an endemic family.
Brazil's unrivaled richness in endemic freshwater fish species, 1756 species (p. 21 of iucnffsg.org pdf file), includes the Brazilian Blind Characid (BBC), the Green Piranha (piranha-info.com), the Santa Catarina Sabrefin (ARKive), the Lyrefin Pearlfish (WWF Brasil), the Royal Tetra (FishBase), the Gold Tetra (FishBase), the Slender Pike Cichlid (FishBase), Arapaima leptosoma (Science Daily), the Blue-bellied Night Wanderer (Species New to Science), Isbrueckerichthys duseni (Loricariidae), the Long-finned Cambeva (SciELO Brazil), an eyeless banjo catfish Micromyzon akamai (PlanetCatfish), Maratecoara lacortei (FishBase), and the White-blotched River Stingray (eol).
marine fish found only off Brazil are the Oblique
the Striped Parrotfish (flickr),
the Brazilian Basslet (eol), a wrasse Halichoeres penrosei
the Saint Paul Gregory (ARKive),
the Brazilian Large-eyed Stingray
the Brazilian Snapper (Species New to Science),
and a grunt Haemulon
Invertebrates found solely in Brazil include the Fluminense Swallowtail Parides ascanius (flickr), Morpho athena (flickr), Charonias theano (SciELO Brazil), Heliconius nattereri (Lepidoptera Brasilienses), an endemic genus of bee Protomeliturga (SciELO Brazil), the primitive ant Martialis heureka (Myrmecos Blog), a land snail Megalobulimus parafragilior (Wikipedia), an isopod Iuiuniscus iuiuensis (ESF), and the Brazilian Salmon Pink Tarantula (ARKive). Endemic invertebrate families include the strepsipterans Bahiaxenidae (Wikipedia), the mayflies Melanemerellidae (Picasa), the moths Neotheoridae (John Grehan), the harvestmen Cryptogeobiidae (Opiliones Wiki), a millipede Dobrodesmidae (Zootaxa), and the isopods Brasileirinidae (Zootaxa 5 MB pdf file) and Pudeoniscidae (SciELO Brazil).
invertebrates include the corals Mussismilia
and Favia leptophylla
a sea slug Tambja
stegosauriformis (Sea Slug
the molluscs Conus
do Brasil) and Voluta
do Brasil), and an endemic brachiopod family Bouchardiidae
According to Flora do Brasil 2020 there are 18900 species of vascular plants endemic to Brazil (lists of endemic genera and endemic species can be generated at REFLORA). Plants exclusive to Brazil include the national tree Pau Brasil (Global Trees Campaign), the Brazilian Rosewood (ARKive), the roundworm digesting Philcoxia minensis (Mongabay), and the Empress of Brazil Worsleya procera (Pacific Bulb Society). Duckeodendron cestroides (JSTOR) is sometimes considered the sole species in an endemic family, Duckeodendraceae (DELTA). Among over 1600 orchid species unique to Brazil are Chytroglossa marileoniae (CPO), Grobya amherstiae (CPO), and Pseudolaelia vellozicola (CPO). A spectacular endemic bromeliad flora includes Quesnelia arvensis (CPO), Orthophytum eddie-estevesii (Paradise), and Nidularium rutilans (FCBS). Cacti genera found only in Brazil include Hatiora (Paradise), Cipocereus (ARKive), Stephanocereus (Paradise), and Espostoopsis (Paradise).