has more unique species of amphibians and freshwater fish than any
other country in the world and is one of the main contenders (along
with Australia and Indonesia) for most species
of endemic life. Brazil has several distinctive regions rich in animals
found nowhere else including the Caatinga ecoregion (EoE),
the Atlantic Forest (CI) and Cerrado (CI)
biodiversity hotspots, the Abrolhos Coral Reefs (SIGEP),
and, most famously, the Amazon (WWF). Freshwater ecoregions especially rich in endemic species include the Tocantins - Araguaia (FEOW) and the Northeastern Mata Atlantica (FEOW),
Primates found exclusively in Brazil include the Golden Lion Tamarin (Smithsonian National Zoo), the Northern Muriqui (ARKive), the White-whiskered Spider Monkey (ARKive), the Red-handed Howler (ARKive), Coimbra Filho's Titi (flickr), the Pied Tamarin (ARKive), Ayres Black Uakari (ARKive), the Black-bearded Saki (ARKive), and the Blonde Capuchin (ARKive). Other mammals unique to Brazil include the Maned Sloth (EDGE), the Brazilian Three-banded Armadillo (ARKive), the Hoary Fox (canids.org), the Atlantic Forest Long-nosed Bat (Species New to Science), the Thin-spined Porcupine (ICMBio), the Rock Cavy (eol), the Painted Tree Rat (ARKive), Karimi's Fat-tailed Mouse Opossum (ARKive), and Santa Catarina’s Guinea Pig (EDGE), the mammal with the smallest natural range.
Brazil's endemic parrots include the critically endangered Spix’s Macaw (ARKive), the Golden Conure (WPT), Lear's Macaw (ARKive), and the Blue-bellied Parrot (BirdLife Int'l). Other birds found only in Brazil include Kaempfer’s Woodpecker (ARKive), the Hooded Visorbearer (Arthur Grosset's Birds), the Frilled Coquette (IBC), the Alagoas Curassow (BirdLife Int'l), the White-necked Hawk (CEO), the Crescent-chested Puffbird (IBC), the Banded Cotinga (IBC), the Pin-tailed Manakin (Neotropical Birds), the White-browed Antpitta (IBC), the Ferruginous Antbird (Neotropical Birds), the White-naped Jay (IBC), the Black-legged Dacnis (IBC), the Gray-hooded Attila (Neotropical Birds), and the Seven-colored Tanager (ARKive).
Among endemic reptile genera are a worm lizard Bronia (ADW), a gymnophthalmid lizard Psilophthalmus (Check List), a gecko Gymnodactylus (flickr), and several colubrid snakes: Tropidodryas (Biodiversidade RS), Gomesophis (Check List), and Sordellina (CalPhotos). Other reptiles unique to Brazil include the Golden Lancehead Bothrops insularis (ARKive), the Brazilian Coral Snake Micrurus decoratus (flickr), the Caatinga Rainbow Boa Epicrates assisi (flickr), Cropan's Tree Boa Corallus cropanii (Serpentes Brasileiras), the Yellow Tegu Tupinambis duseni (Repteis Squamata do Cerrado), a fathead anole Enyalius bibronii (Anfíbios e Répteis do Brasil), and the Brazilian Snake-necked Turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (ARKive).
Brazil's exceptional amphibian fauna includes the Pumpkin Toadlet Brachycephalus epphipium (AmphibiaWeb), the Caatinga Horned Frog Ceratophrys joazeirensis (Anfíbios e Répteis do Brasil), the Fruit-eating Frog Xenohyla truncata (POYi), the Splash-backed Poison Frog Dendrobates galactonotus (DendroBase), the Itatiaia Highland Frog Holoaden bradei (ARKive), Frostius erythrophthalmus (globo.com), Scythrophrys sawayae (AmphibiaWeb), Phyllomedusa oreades (Anfíbios e Répteis do Brasil), Paratelmatobius poecilogaster (AmphibiaWeb), a salamander Bolitoglossa paraensisa (CalPhotos), a caecilian Atretochoana eiselti (NHM-London), and a number of recently described species (amphibia.ufba.br). Some classifications include only Cycloramphus (CalPhotos) and Thoropa (AmphibiaWeb) in Cycloramphidae, resulting in an endemic family.
Brazil's unrivaled richness in endemic freshwater fish species includes the Brazilian Blind Characid Stygichthys typhlops (BBC), the Green Piranha (piranha-info.com), the Santa Catarina Sabrefin (ARKive), the Lyrefin Pearlfish Simpsonichthys boitonei (WWF Brasil), the Royal Tetra (FishBase), the Gold Tetra Rachoviscus crassiceps (FishBase), the Slender Pike Cichlid (FishBase), the Blue-bellied Night Wanderer (NHM - London), Isbrueckerichthys duseni (Loricariidae), the Long-finned Cambeva Trichogenes longipinnis (ICMBio), an eyeless banjo catfish Micromyzon akamai (PlanetCatfish), Maratecoara lacortei (Killifische), and the White-blotched River Stingray (eol). Among marine fish found only off Brazil are the Oblique Butterflyfish (ARKive), the Striped Parrotfish Scarus zelindae (Osmar Luiz Júnior), the Brazilian Basslet (eol), a wrasse Halichoeres penrosei (flickr), the Saint Pul Gregory (ARKive), the Brazilian Large-eyed Stingray (Osmar Luiz Júnior), the Brazilian Snapper (Wildlife Extra), and a grunt Haemulon squamipinna (flickr).
Invertebrates found solely in Brazil include the Fluminense Swallowtail Parides ascanius (flickr), Morpho anaxibia (ButterflyCorner.net), Morpho athena (flickr), Charonias theano (ICMBio), Heliconius nattereri (Lepidoptera Brasilienses), an endemic genus of bee Protomeliturga (SciELO Brazil), the primitive ant Martialis heureka (Myrmecos Blog), the strepsipteran family Bahiaxenidae (Wikipedia), the isopod family Brasileirinidae (Zootaxa 5 MB pdf file), a land snail Megalobulimus parafragilior (Wikipedia), and one of the world's largest spiders, the Brazilian Salmon Pink Tarantula (ARKive). Endemic marine invertebrates include the corals Mussismilia hispida (ARKive) and Favia leptophylla (FAPERJ), a nudibranch Tambja stegosauriformis (Sea Slug Forum), and the molluscs Conus abrolhosensis (Conquiliologistas do Brasil) and Voluta ebraea (Conquiliologistas do Brasil).
According to the Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil over 18000 species of vascular plants are endemic to Brazil (lists of endemic genera and endemic species can be generated at Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil). Plants exclusive to Brazil include the national tree Pau Brasil (Global Trees Campaign), the Brazilian Rosewood (ARKive), the roundworm digesting Philcoxia minensis (Mongabay), and the Empress of Brazil Worsleya procera (Pacific Bulb Society). Duckeodendron cestroides (JSTOR) is sometimes considered the sole species in an endemic family, Duckeodendraceae (DELTA). Among over 1600 orchid species unique to Brazil are Chytroglossa marileoniae (CPO), Grobya amherstiae (CPO), and Pseudolaelia vellozicola (CPO). A spectacular endemic bromeliad flora includes Quesnelia arvensis (CPO), Orthophytum eddie-estevesii (Paradise), and Nidularium rutilans (FCBS). Cacti genera found only in Brazil include Hatiora (Paradise), Cipocereus (ARKive), Stephanocereus (Paradise), and Espostoopsis (Paradise).