The following account
covers species endemic to the island of Timor that apparently occur in
both Indonesia and Timor-Leste. The island of Timor is
part of the Timor and Wetar Deciduous Forests terrestrial ecoregion (EoE),
the Lesser Sunda Islands freshwater ecoregion (FEOW),
the Sunda Islands coral reef hotspot (Reef
Guardian pdf file), and the Wallacea
biodiversity hotspot (CI).
Birds unique to Timor include the Timor Green-pigeon (BirdLife Int'l), the Yellow-eared Honeyeater (OBC), the Streaky-breasted Honeyeater (IBC), the Black-breasted Myzomela (OBC), the Timor Friarbird (IBC), the Timor Figbird (OBC), the White-bellied Bushchat (IBC), the Black-banded Flycatcher (OBC), the Spot-breasted White-eye (IBC), and the Timor Sparrow (BirdLife Int'l). The Buff-banded Grassbird (OBC) is an endemic genus.
Mammals found nowhere else include the Timorese Horseshoe Bat (Planet' Mammiferes), the Timor Leaf-nosed Bat (IUCN Red List), the Timor Shrew (IUCN Red List), and the Timor Forest Rat (WA Museum pdf file). The recently extinct Buehler’s Rat (IUCN Red List) represented an endemic genus and was the largest known rat that ever lived (CSIRO).
Reptiles restricted to Timor include the Timor Gecko Cnemaspis timoriensis (Reptile Database), the skinks Glaphyromorphus (or Eremiascincus) antoniorum (Reptile Database) and Glaphyromorphus (or Eremiascincus) timorensis (p. 4 of BirdLife Int'l pdf file), and the recently described Timor Longneck Turtle Chelodina timorensis (CRF pdf file) which was later described independently as Chelodina mccordi timorlestensis. Accounts of a number of undescribed endemic reptile species can be found at (ZooKeys).
Among amphibians, the Timor River Frog Limnonectes timorensis (Mark O'Shea)
is sometimes considered an endemic species distinct from the more
widespread Lesser Sundas Frog Hylarana
elberti (IUCN Red List).
Freshwater fish exclusive to Timor include a ricefish Oryzias timorensis (p. 96 of Smithsonian pdf file) and a hardyhead Craterocephalus laisapi (aqua). Marine fish known only from specimens collected off Timor include the Kupang Pony Fish Eubleekeria (or Leiognathus) kupanensis (p. 7 of Deep Blue pdf file) and a snake eel Bascanichthys (or Callechelys) sibogae (Internet Archive).
Butterflies known solely from Timor include a birdwing Troides plato (Tony Nagypal), Papilio biseriatus (EntomID-PNG), the Timor Yellow Tiger Parantica timorica (EntomID-PNG), Delias splendida (EntomID-PNG), Delias eileenae (Delias of the World), Delias lemoulti (Delias of the World), and Charaxes orilus (mushikiti.blog.so-net.ne.jp). Other endemic invertebrates include a longhorned beetle Nemophas batoceroides (Cerambycoidea.com), a leaf beetle Apophylia (or Malaxis) dilaticornis (Harvard), a rhinoceros beetle Oryctes heros (zin.ru pdf file), a potter wasp Coeleumenes timorensis (p. 20 of Zootaxa pdf file), and a land snail Amphidromus reflexilabris (b-cabinet). Two families of nemertean worms have been described based exclusively on specimens collected off Timor: the Drepanobandidae consisting of Drepanobanda trilineata (WoRMS) and Siboganemertidae consisting of Siboganemertes weberi (p. 11 of jcs.biologists.org pdf file).
Vascular plant species confined to Timor include the Timor Black Bamboo Bambusa lako (Wikipedia), Dracaena timorensis (Kew), a palm Calamus timorensis (Kew), Eucalyptus orophila (EucaLink), Begonia timorensis (Kew), Callicarpa laciniata (Kew), Freycinetia timorensis (Tropicos), Glochidion pubescens (Kew), and several orchids: Diuris fryana (Nationaal Herbarium Nederland), Aerides timorana (plantillustrations.org), Habenaria ankylocentron (p. 8 of univie.ac.at pdf file), Habenaria cauda-porcelli (p. 9 of univie.ac.at pdf file), and Pterostylis timorensis (p. 15 of univie.ac.at pdf file). Sautiera tinctorum (JSTOR) represents an endemic genus.