covers species endemic to the island of Timor that apparently occur in
both Indonesia and Timor-Leste. The island of Timor is
part of the Timor and Wetar Deciduous Forests terrestrial
the Lesser Sunda Islands freshwater ecoregion (FEOW),
the Sunda Islands coral reef hotspot (Columbia Univ. pdf file), and the Wallacea
biodiversity hotspot (CEPF).
Birds unique to Timor include the Timor Green-pigeon (HBW), the Yellow-eared Honeyeater (OBC), the Streaky-breasted Honeyeater (HBW), the Black-breasted Myzomela (OBC), the Timor Friarbird (HBW), the Timor Figbird (OBC), the White-bellied Bushchat (HBW), the Black-banded Flycatcher (OBC), the Spot-breasted White-eye (HBW), and the Timor Sparrow (HBW). The Buff-banded Grassbird (OBC) is an endemic genus.
Mammals found nowhere else include the Timorese Horseshoe Bat (Planet' Mammiferes), the Timor Leaf-nosed Bat (IUCN Red List), the Timor Shrew (IUCN Red List), and the Timor Forest Rat (WA Museum pdf file). The recently extinct Buehler’s Rat (IUCN Red List) represented an endemic genus and was the largest known rat that ever lived (CSIRO).
Reptiles restricted to Timor include the Timor Gecko Cnemaspis timoriensis (Reptile Database), a bent-toed gecko Cyrtodactylus celatus (Species New to Science), Schlegel's Snake-eyed Skink Cryptoblepharus schlegelianus (fig. 2 on p. 29 of UvA-DARE pdf file), and the skinks Eremiascincus antoniorum (Reptile Database) and Eremiascincus (or Glaphyromorphus) timorensis (p. 4 of Meioambiente pdf file). The recently described Timor Longneck Turtle Chelodina timorensis (CRF pdf file) is often considered a subspecies of Chelodina mccordi. Accounts of a number of undescribed endemic reptile species can be found at (ZooKeys).
Among amphibians, the Timor River Frog Limnonectes timorensis
is sometimes considered an endemic species distinct from the more
widespread Lesser Sundas Frog Hylarana
elberti (IUCN Red List).
Freshwater fish exclusive to Timor include a ricefish Oryzias timorensis (p. 96 of Smithsonian pdf file) and a hardyhead Craterocephalus laisapi (aqua). Marine fish known only from specimens collected off Timor include the Kupang Pony Fish Eubleekeria (or Leiognathus) kupanensis (p. 7 of Deep Blue pdf file), Santana's Dwarf Goby Eviota santanai (National Geographic), and a snake eel Bascanichthys (or Callechelys) sibogae (Internet Archive).
Butterflies known solely from Timor include a birdwing Troides plato (Tony Nagypal), Papilio biseriatus (Papilionidae of the World), the Timor Yellow Tiger Parantica timorica (fig. 4 at BHL), Delias splendida (Delias of the World), Delias eileenae (Delias of the World), Delias lemoulti (Delias of the World), and Charaxes orilus (mushikiti.blog.so-net.ne.jp). Other endemic invertebrates include a longhorned beetle Nemophas batoceroides (Cerambycoidea.com), a leaf beetle Apophylia (or Malaxis) dilaticornis (Harvard), a rhinoceros beetle Oryctes heros (zin.ru pdf file), a diving beetle Necterosoma timorense (AEMNP pdf file), a potter wasp Coeleumenes timorensis (p. 20 of Zootaxa pdf file), a bee Gnathonomia timor (Atlas Hymenoptera), a soapberry bug Leptocoris minusculus (Soapberry Bugs of the World), and a land snail Amphidromus reflexilabris (b-cabinet). Two families of nemertean worms have been described based exclusively on specimens collected off Timor: the Drepanobandidae consisting of Drepanobanda trilineata (WoRMS) and Siboganemertidae consisting of Siboganemertes weberi (p. 11 of jcs.biologists.org pdf file).
Among about 150 vascular plant species confined to Timor are the Timor Black Bamboo Bambusa lako (Wikipedia), Dracaena timorensis (Kew), a palm Calamus timorensis (BHL), Eucalyptus orophila (Don Franklin), Begonia timorensis (Kew), Callicarpa laciniata (BHL), Freycinetia timorensis (Tropicos), Glochidion pubescens (MNHN), and several orchids: Diuris fryana (Nationaal Herbarium Nederland), Aerides timorana (plantillustrations.org), Habenaria ankylocentron (p. 8 of univie.ac.at pdf file), Habenaria cauda-porcelli (p. 9 of univie.ac.at pdf file), and Pterostylis timorensis (p. 15 of univie.ac.at pdf file). Sautiera tinctorum (JSTOR) represents an endemic genus.